Psych_1102 flashcards.txt

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Psych_1102 flashcards.txt
2011-11-06 06:55:50

exam review
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  1. Hallucinations
    A symptom of disorder in which people perceive voices or other stimuli when there are no stimuli present
  2. Selective Abstraction
    Extracting and attenting to only information that confirms danger beliefs
  3. Congruence
    A consistency between the way therapists feel and the way they act towards their clients.
  4. Gestalt therapy
    An active treatment designed to help clients get in touch with genuine feelings and disown foreign ones
  5. Psychologists
    Among therapists, those whose education includes a completion of masters or doctoral degree in clinical or counselling psychology, often followed by additional special training
  6. Exposure techniques
    Behaviour therapy methods in which a client remains in the presence of strong stimuli unitil the intensity of their emotional reactions decrease
  7. Assertivenesss training & Social skills training
    Methods for teaching clients how to interact with others more comfortably and effectively
  8. Arbitrary Inference
    Drawing erroneous conclusions on the basis of inadequate evidence (e.g. interpretation of noises, facial expressions)
  9. Systematic Desensitisation
    A behavioural treatment for anxiety in which clients visualise a graduated series of anxiety-provoking stimuli while reaminig relaxed.
  10. Flooding
    An exposure technique for reducing anxiety that involves keeping a person in a feared, but harmless situation
  11. Behaviour therapy
    Treatments that use classical conditioning principles to change behaviour
  12. Behaviour modification
    Treatments that use operant conditioning methods to change behaviour
  13. Cognitive-Behaviour therapy
    Learning based treatment methods that help clients change the way they think, as well as the way they behave
  14. Modeling
    Demonstratig desirable behaviours as a way of teaching them to clients
  15. Psychoanalysis
    A method of psychotherapy that seeks to help clients gain insight by recognising and understanding unconcious thoughts and emotions
  16. Reflection
    An active listening method in which a therapist conveys empathy by paraphrasing clients' statements and noting accompanying feelings
  17. Psychiatrists
    Medical doctors who are trained in the treatment of psychological disorders
  18. Psychotherapy
    Treatment of psychological disorders through talking and other psychological methods
  19. Client centered therapy
    A therapy that allows the client to decided what to talk about without direction, judgement or interpretation from the therapist.
  20. Unconditional positive regard
    A therapist attitude that conveys a caring for, and acceptance od, the client as a valued person
  21. Empathy
    The therapists' attempt to appreciate and understnad how the world looks from the clients' point of view
  22. Positive symptoms
    Symptoms that add to the persons life e.g. disorganised thought, hallucinations and delusions.
  23. Mood disorder
    Conditions in which a person experiences extreme moods such as depression and mania, especially when their moods are not consistent with the events around them.
  24. Dissociative disorders
    Rare conditions that involve sudden and usually temporary disruptions in a person's memory, consciousness or identity.
  25. Dissociative fugue
    A dissociative disorder involving sudden loss of memory and the assumption of a new identity in a new locale.
  26. Pain disorder
    Marked by complaints of sever, often constant pain (typically back, neck, or chest) with no physical cause.
  27. Major depressive disorder
    A mood disorder in which a person feels sad and hopeless for weeks or months.
  28. Antisocial personality disorder
    A personality disorder involving selfish, impulsive, unscrupulous even criminal behaviour
  29. Negative symptoms
    Symptoms that subtract elements from a person's life- absense of pleasure, lack of speech and flat effect.
  30. Bipolar I disorder
    A mood disorder in which a person alternates between deep depression and mania
  31. Personality Disorder
    Long-standing, inflexible ways of behaving that create a variety of problems.
  32. Dysthymic Disorder
    A mood disorder involving a pattern of comparitively mild dpression that lasts at least 2 years.
  33. Somatization Disorder
    Disorder in which there are numerous physical complaints without verifiable physical illness
  34. Hypochondriasis
    Somatoform disorder involving a strong, unjustified fear of having physical illness.
  35. Conversion disorder
    Somatoform disorder in which a person displays blindness, deafness or other symptoms or motor failure without a physical cause.
  36. Somatoform Disorders
    Psychological problems in which there are symptoms of a physical disorder without a physical cause.
  37. Dissociative amnesia
    A dissociative disorder marked by a sudden loss of memory.
  38. Dissociative identity disorder
    A person reports to have more than one identity.
  39. Mania
    An elevated, very active emotional state.
  40. Bipolar II disorder
    Major depressive episodes alternate with hypomania
  41. Cyclothymic disorder
    Involves episodes of depression and mania, but the intensity of both moods are less sever than in Bipolar I
  42. Social phobia
    An axiety disorder involving strong, irrational fears relating to social situations.
  43. Agoraphobia
    An anxiety disorder involving a strong fear of being alone, or leaving the home.
  44. (GAD) Generalised Anxiety Disorder
    A conditio that involves relatively minor but long-lasting anxiety that is not focused on any particular objects or situation
  45. Panic Disorder
    An anxiety disorder involving sudden panic attacks
  46. Phobia
    An anxiety disorder involving strong, irrational fear of an object that does not objectively justify such a reaction
  47. Specific phobias
    Anxiety disorders involving fear and avoidance of specific stimuli and situations
  48. Diathesis-Stress Approach
    Viewing psychological disorders as arising when a predisposition for a disorder combines with sufficient amounts of stress to trigger symptoms.
  49. Biopsychosocial model
    A view of mental disorders as caused by a combination of interacting biological, psychological and socialcultural factors.
  50. Sociocultural model
    A way of looking at mental disorders in relation to gender, afe, ethnicity and other social and cultural factors.
  51. Psychological Model
    A view in which mental disorders are seen as arising from psychological proceses.
  52. Impaired functioning
    Difficulty in fulfilling appropriate and expected family, social and work-related roles.
  53. Psychopathology
    Patterns of thinking, feeling and behaving that are maladaptive, disruptive or uncomfortable for those affected or those with whom they come in contact.
  54. Neurobiological model
    A modern name for the 'medical model', in which psychological disorders are seen as reflecting disturbances in the anatomy and chesmitry of the brain and in other biological processes,
  55. Schizophrenia
    A sever and disabling pattern of disturbed thinking, emotion , perception and behaviour
  56. Delusions
    False beliefs, such as those experienced by schizosphrenics or those suffering from extreme depression.
  57. Anxiety Diorder
    A condition in which intense feelings of apprehension are long-standing and disruptive.
  58. Hindsight bias
    We tend to belive, after learning the outcome, that we would have foreseen it
  59. Overconfidence:
    We tend to think we know more than we do
  60. Overgeneralisation
    Beliefs that inaccurately assume a relationship between variables
  61. Self-fulfilling prophecies
    Behaviour alters the outcome
  62. False consensus effect
    Tendency to overestimate the extent to which we share our beliefs and behaviours
  63. Availability Heuristics
    More vivis and easily recalled examples bias us to believe these are instances that are mosre likely to occur
  64. Post hoc fallacy
    We believe that if one event precedes another, it is probably causally related
  65. Correlation coefficient
    A statistical measure of the extent to which factors vary factors vary together, and thus how well either factor predicts the other
  66. Reasons why two set of data correlated
    • 1) because one has a direct causal relationship with the other
    • 2) Because one has an indirect causal relationship with the other
    • 3) because both are the result of another completely different cause, or set of causes.
  67. Developmental Psychology
    is concerned with the cause and course of the developmental changes that take place over a persons entire lifetime
  68. John Locke
    Newborn is a blank slate; tabular rasa
  69. Jean-Jacques Rousseau