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What are the eucaryotic cells of interest?
fungi, protists (protozoans and algae) and helminth worms.
What are eucaryotic cells?
Eucaryotic cells are large complex cells with membrane-bound enclosed organells and a nucleus.
What are the three external structures of eucaryotic cells?
- 1. Flagella
- 3. Glycocalyx
Flagella in eucaryotic cells are: (4)
- 1. Common in protozoans and some algae
- 2. Long, sheathed cylinder covered by extension of cell membrane.
- 3. Move with a whiplike function using the 9+2 arrangement of microtubules.
- 4. Can push forward or pull back.
Cilia in eucaryotic cells are: (2)
- 1. Similar structure as flagella because they have 9+2 arrangement. They are shorter and more numerous than flagella.
- 2. found only in Ciliophora protozoans and certain animal cells.
Glycocalyx in eucaryotic cells is:
- 1. Glyco means carbohydrate.
- 2. Are found in most cells.
- 3. Made of polysaccharides.
- 4. Used for protection, adherence, reception of chemical signals and prevents water loss.
What are the two structures to the boundary of eucaryotic cells?
- 1. Cell wall
- 2. Cell membrane
Cell walls in eucaryotic cells are: (2)
- 1. Occur in fungi, most algae but not in protozoans, animals and a few algae.
- 2. Varied compostion.
- Fungi- made of chitin
- Algae- made of cellulose, pectin, mannans
Cell membranes in eucaryotic cells are: (6)
- 1. Every cell has a cell membrane
- 2. Is a lipid bilayer with proteins embedded
- 3. Proteins embedded are called Sterols which help provide extra support to cells.
- 4. Have a semipermeable membrane that controls transport of what comes in and goes out of cell.
- 5. In cells without cell wall they help with the shape and support for the cell.
- 6. Has fewer functions in eucaryotic cells than in procaryotic cells (procaryotic cells have more functions.)
Sterols that in the cell membrane of eucaryotic cells are: (4)
- 1. A type of lipid that help provide extra support to cells.
- 2. Cholesterol- found in animal cells and protozoa
- 3. Ergosterol- found in fungi
- 4. Phytosterol-found in algae and some plants
What are the ten internal structures of eucaryotic cells?
- 1. Cytoplasm
- 2. Endoplasmic Reticulum
- 3. Golgi apparatus
- 4. Vesicles
- 5. Lysosome
- 6. Mitochondria
- 7. Chloroplasts
- 8. Cytoskeleton
- 9. Ribosomes
- 10. Nucleus
What is an organelle?
A organelle is a membrane enclosed stuctures with a function in the cell.
Cytoplasm in eucaryotic cells are:
Everything inside the cell membrane except the nucleus.
Endoplasmic Reticulum in eucaryotic cells are:
Series of tunnels within cell used in synthesis, processing, transport and storage of macromolecules.
What are the macromolecules? (4)
- 1. Carbohydrates
- 2. proteins
- 3. lipids
- 4. nuclaic acids
Differences betweeen rough ER and smooth ER.
Rough ER is studded with ribosomes and smooth ER has no Ribosomes.
Golgi apparatus in eucaryotic cells are: (3)
- 1. Flattened discs that are associated with endoplasmic reticulum
- 2. Does the final processing of proteins, carbs and lipids
- 3. Packaging and shipping, called the "UPS of Cell"
What is referred to as "Assembly Line of Cell"? (3)
- 1. Rough ER
- 2. Smooth ER
- 3. Golgi apparatus
Vesicles in eucaryotic cells are:
Transport and storage of materials
Lysosomes in eucaryotic cells are: (2)
- 1. Vesicles from the Golgi apparatus
- 2. Intracellular digestion and protection from invaders
Mitochondria in eucaryotic cells are:
Energy center- ATP production
Chloroplasts in eucaryotic cells are: (2)
- 1. In algae
- 2. Photosynthesis
Cytoskeleton in eucaryotic cells are: (2)
- 1. Support network
- 2. Anchor organells, provide suppport, shape changes and movement using microtilaments and microtubules.
Ribosomes in eucaryotic cells are: (3)
- 1. Peptide and protein production
- 2. Incomplete protein chain
- 3. In 2 parts- larger than procaryotic cells
Nucleus in eucaryotic cells are:
- 1. Surrounded by nuclear membrane
- 2. Two membranes with pores
- 3. Nucleolus-RNA synthesis
- 4. Chromosomes-DNA plus proteins
What is the motion of eukaryotic flagella?
Whiplike movement that can push forward or pull back.
What is the difference between sexual and asexual reproduction?
Sexual reproduction having a sexual act to reproduce. Asexual reproduction is not having to have a sexually act to reproduce.
What is the difference between a true pathogen and opportunistic pathogen?
- A true pathogen are pathogens that can make healthy people sick.
- Opportunistic pathogens make immune suppressed people sick.
Characteristic of fungi. (8)
- 1. 100,000 species
- 2. All heterotrophic (other feeder)
- 3. All have cell walls
- 4. Non-motile
- 5. Most saprobes (decompose dead things)
- 6. Few parasites- very few require living host
- 7. Macroscopic-mushrooms and puffballs
- 8. Microscopic- molds and yeasts
Characteristics of yeast. (2)
- 1. Unicellular
- 2. Round to oval shape cells
Characteristics of molds. (3)
- 1. Hyphae form
- 2. Long threadlike cells
- 3. Filamentous
Differences in septate and non-septate.
Septate are like sidewalks(have a break between each square. Non-spetate have no breaks between each cell.
Reproduction of Fungi (Yeasts and Molds)
- Both use asexual reproduction. Molds use both.
- Yeasts- budding which is small cell growing off another cell. Mitosis of nucleus.
- Molds- More common use asexual spores but also have sexual spores.
What are some benefits of fungi?
- 1. "Fungal rot"- brings in nutrients for plants.
- 2. Penicillin comes from the mold Penicillium
- 3. Blue cheese, bread, alcohol.
What are the characteristic of protists? (3)
- 1. Include both algae and protozoa
- 2. Generally unicellular or colonial lacking a true tissues.
- 3. Too simple to be plants or animals
Subkingdom Algae and Subkingdom Protozoa beling to what Kingdom?
What are the characteristics of algae? (5)
- 1. All photosynthetic.
- 2. Unicellular
- 3. Colonial and filamentous
- 4. Some motile
- 5. Most have cell walls but some don't.
What are the benefits of algae? (3)
- 1. Plankton, aquatic food web, oxygen is produced by algae.
- 2. Diatoms- "diatomacelus earth" used to make road signs the sparkle.
- 3. Algae make agar, sushi, oils-biodiesel.
What are red tides and what organisms produce them? (2)
- Red tides are an overgrowth of algae that turns the lakes red. It is toxic to fish and humans.
- Caused by dinoflagellates-ALGAE
What are the characteristics of protozoa? (10)
- 1. Most are uicellular
- 2. No chloroplasts
- 3. Many motile
- 4. No cell wall
- 5. Heterotrophic (eats of others)
- 6. Most free-living
- 7. Parasites live on fluids of host
- 8. Wide variety of habitats
- 9. Some cyst forming which are a survival function.
- 10. Asexual reproduction common but sexual reproduction also used.
What are the different ways protozoa are motile?(3)
- 1. Pseudopods (false feet)
- 2. Flagella
- 3. Cilia
What is the trophozoite stage and the cyst stage?
the stages that protozoa can be in. the trophozoite stage is the actively growing, feeding, reproducing and moving stage. The cyst stage is the survival stage.