HIST 17A Exam 2

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  1. When, where, why Constitutional Convention held
    • when: 1787
    • where: Liberty Hall, Philadelphia
    • why: Hamilton called it to revise Art. of Confed. which did not work well, but ended up scrapping it and starting a new document
  2. Authors of Constitution
    • James Madison wrote Constituion, voluntary note-taker
    • George Mason wrote Bill of Rights (1st 10 Amendments)
  3. type of govt created by Constitution
    • strong central (supreme) federal govt with 13 states (FEDERALISM)
    • tri-partite govt (Separation of Powers) (Exec, Judicial, Legis branches)
  4. Articles of Confederation
    • written by 2nd Continental Congress in Philadelphia
    • adopted 1781
    • created Republic (confederation of states w/ no central govt)
    • each state printed own $, no provisions for interstate trade or intnl relations
    • overall very poor arrangment
  5. Bill of Rights
  6. Large State Plan
    • aka the Virginia Plan
    • Madison's plan at Const. Conv.
    • 1: scrap AoC
    • 2: bicameral leg
    • 3: fed judiciary
    • 4: president elected by congress
    • 5: centralized govt supreme
  7. Great Compromise
    plan to grant each state equal representation in Senate and proportional representation in House of Reps
  8. Federalist Party
    • leader: A. Hamilton
    • rule by: upper class, educated, wealthy
    • central govt: yes, strong
    • economy: big business, manufacturing
    • debt: a little is okay
    • model: England's politics & economy
  9. Antifederalist Party
    • leader: middle class, "common man"
    • central govt: yes, weak
    • economy:agriculture, land ownership, on back of "yeoman farmer"
    • debt: toxic
    • model: France's politics & economy
    • became: Democratic Republican Party, then Democratic Party
  10. 1st presidential cabinet
    • group of advisors chosen to assist president
    • Washington chose trusted guys: Hamilton, Jefferson, Knox
    • GW's choice established creation of cabinet for future presidents
  11. Washington's farewell address
    • GW wrote & printed it before end of 2nd term
    • 1: explained why he would not seek a 3rd term
    • 2: set out 3 pieces of advice for country
    • A: warned against political party (2-way split would cause division)
    • B: warned against "entangling alliances" (permanent alliances could drag US into unneccessary war or debt)
    • C: keep US credit good, don't accrue unneccessary debt
  12. Washington's presidency
    • set mold for future presidents in 8 ways
    • 1: Aura of Office -- removed person, untouchable, separate (GW's personality)
    • 2: 2 terms maximum -- he resigned after 2nd term voluntarily (FDR served 4 terms)
    • 3: president's "cabinet"
    • 4: State of Union Address -- GW started in order to communicate his goals to Congress
    • 5: Commander-in-Chief -- had lots of experience as general in Revo. War, but wanted some separation between military and govt so he resigned generalship
    • 6: enforcer of federal law: natural military leader
    • 7: don't ask Senate chamber for advice
    • 8: diplomatic audience protocol: set rules for obtaining audience w/ president
  13. Jefferson's presidency
    Louisiana Purchase: bought all land from Rockies to Appalachians from French for $15 million, 3 c/acre, 270,000 sq. mi.
  14. Madison's presidency
    War of 1812 to stop harassment by English army and navy
  15. Monroe's presidency
    • last of founding fathers to serve as president
    • helped establish US foreign policy w/ Monroe Doctrine 1823
    • Market Revolution
  16. Jackson's presidency
    • elected 1828
    • very popular
    • born poor, became rich, educated
    • supported by frontier states, rough-and-ready
    • "Era of Common Man"
    • started association of presidency w/ cowboy frontiersman tough-talker
  17. John Marshall
    • S. Ct. Justice
    • 1828 ruled Cherokee were sovereign nation, could not be forced off land
    • Jackson did nothing to enforce the ruling
    • Trail of Tears ensued
  18. George Mason
    • wrote Bill of Rights (1st 10 Amendments to Constitution)
    • Hamilton wanted unanimous adoption by states, so asked for BoR, successful 1791
  19. Eli Whitney
    • 1793 developed "Cotton Gin" to speed process of picking cotton
    • cotton took off as boom crop in South
  20. Aaron Burr
    • Anti-Federalist who once ran as V.P. to Jefferson
    • disliked Hamilton, who had campaigned to prevent him from becoming governor of NY
    • challenged H to a duel, killed him, lost respect, got tried for secession (later) and left for Europe
  21. Samuel Slater
    • English textile mill employee
    • escaped to US with factory blueprints memorized
    • 1790 built 1st US factory
  22. Sacajawea ?
  23. Tecumseh ?
  24. Horace Mann
    • reformer who established US public school grades 1-6
    • designed to train factory workers to be compliant to schedule, monotony
  25. Noah Webster
    1st American English dictionary
  26. R.W. Emerson, H.D. Thoreau & Civil Disobedience & Transcendentalists ?
  27. Dorothea Dix ?
  28. Amelia Bloomer
    created Bloomers, billowy pants that allowed women to move more freely, escape restrictive clothings
  29. Rachel Robards
    • wife of Andrew Jackson
    • mudslingers during Jackson's campaign spread rumors about Rachel marrying Jackson immediately after a prior divorce
    • she was so distraught about her reputation that she became sick & died
    • Jackson was vindictive, spent rest of his presidency punishing those he thought responsible for spreading the rumors
  30. Judith Sargent Murray
    reformer who promoted importance of education of girls (as boys' equals)
  31. Abigail Adams ?
  32. Mercy Otis Warren ?
  33. Sally Hemmings ?
  34. Elias Howe
    invented industrial sowing machine
  35. Robert Fulton
    used Watt's steam engine to power a ship (The Claremont), freeing boats from reliance on wind
  36. Samuel Morse
    invents telegraph (electrical pulses sent through wire) and Morse Code
  37. Isaac Singer
    improved Howe's industrial sowing machine, made it personalized, usable in people's homes
  38. James Watt
    invents steam power engine
  39. War of 1812
    • Americans wanted war to stop British from continuing to attack US
    • Madison got permission from Congress to declare war
    • Areas
    • 1: Canada (US wanted to annex Canada, but never could win there)
    • 2: Baltimore & D.C. (Brits burned capital, marched to Baltimore for Battle at Fort McHenry) Francis Scott Key imprisoned on British ship, watched seige)
    • 3: New Orleans -- Brits seiged N.O., Jackson defended, B's lost 2000, US 70, Jackson hero
    • 1814 Treaty of Ghent ended war, status quo antebellum -- U.S. did not "win"
  40. mass democracy
    • promoted by Andrew Jackson
    • expanded voting beyond white, wealthy landowners
    • believed in rule by "popular will"
  41. Trail of Tears
    • Jackson didn't respect Native Americans
    • tried to push Cherokee out of their land in GA
    • Cherokee part of "5 Civilized Tribes" who attempted to adopt US system
    • they protested in courts, went to S. Ct. & John Marshall who ruled they couldn't be forced out
    • Jackson didn't enforce the ruling
    • Cherokee forced out 1838 to reservation in OK, 1000s died on march
  42. Blacks under Jackson
    • with inheritance, bought pistols and 2 slaves
    • felt blacks were 2nd class citizens
    • did nothing to advance Black equality
  43. Women under Jackson
    Jackson felt women were not equal, should play the traditional role in a "White Man's Republic"
  44. Market Revolution
    • 1815 to 1850
    • beginnings of industrial, global, capitalist economy
    • transtion from farms (90%) to factories
    • emphasis on growth via public infrastructure building
  45. 4 aspects of Market Revolution
    • 1: factories
    • 2: technological innovation
    • 3: federal subsidies for road & highway building
    • 4: communication
  46. 4 social impacts of Market Revolution
    • 1: materialization -- wealth, possessions become status symbol
    • 2: economic specialization -- production process broken into series of immediate, repetitive tasks, division of labor
    • 3: emergence of social stratification -- investors, middle class, laborers
    • 4: sensitivity to time -- clock based schedule for factories and schools, created lots of material wealth
  47. 2nd Great Awakening
    • purpose: response to fear that morality had faded since split w/ England
    • leader: Charles Finney
    • erstwhile lawyer
    • had a religious revelation
    • became popular preacher in New England
    • A: individual salvation
    • B: emotional expression of religious belief
    • listeners would howl, wail, convulse at revivals
  48. Peter Cartwright & Francis Ashbury
    • "circuit riders": rode up and down frontiers delivering religious messages to people
    • Cartwright was rough-and-tumble fellow who got in fist fights at his revivals
    • Ashbury was also popular
  49. education reform
    • reformers felt education allowed people to advance in society
    • J. S. Murray
    • Horace Mann
    • Noah Webster
  50. Women's Rights
    • Seneca Falls Convention: 1st WR convention in US 1848
    • 110 women drafted Declaration of Sentiments (based on DoI) promoting women's rights
    • 4 goals:
    • 1: abolish slavery
    • 2: suffrage (not obtained until 1920 -- 19th Amendment)
    • 3: legal freedoms for women
    • 4: prohibition/temperance
    • Elizabeth Stanton
    • Emilia Bloomer
    • Susan B. Anthony
  51. Abolition of Slavery
    • players:
    • American Colonization Society (Quakers)
    • American Anti-Slavery Society (W. Garrison)
    • Harriet Tubman (Underground RR)
    • Sojourner Truth (escaped slave)
    • Frederick Douglass (escaped slave)
    • Mary Still (MA)
  52. Sojourner Truth
    • espcaped slave fled to North
    • lectured to promote abolition & women's rights
    • rejected traditional view of women as fragile and unfit for public service
  53. Frederick Douglass
    • escaped slave
    • felt education was key to freedom
    • self-taught in reading
    • advised Lincoln on abolition
  54. American Colonization Society
    • Quakers in South
    • promoted 2 ideas
    • 1: Gradualism -- free slaves over time, govt should compensate plantation owners for loss
    • 2: govt-sponsored transportation of freed slaves to Liberia (colony in W. Africa established for this purpose), but most slaves wanted to stay in US)
  55. American Anti-Slavery Society
    • William L. Garrison
    • wanted immediate, uncompensated abolition at all costs
  56. Shays' Rebellion
    • 1786 Western PA
    • group of farmers and frontiersmen joined under former officer from Revolutionary War, Daniel Shays
    • rioted in some towns in protest against banks foreclosing on their homes
    • many had fought in Revolution for independence
    • some put on trial, but Shays and others were acquitted
    • showed Articles of Confederation was too weak to govern
  57. Whiskey Rebellion
    • 1794 1st big test for new US under Constitution
    • Western PA, framers hit hard by Excise Tax protested violently (tax on whiskey approved by Hamilton)
    • test of new govt's ability to enforce taxes
    • G. Washington rode part of the way with troops, but Hamilton convinced him not to proceed, H took troops on
    • farmers backed down
    • proved govt's strength
    • GW pardoned them, farmers eventually paid taxes
  58. Hamilton's financial plan
    • US accumulated huge debt from Revolution
    • Hamilton had to pay it off
    • 1: Tarriff of 1789 -- tax on imported goods
    • 2: formation of Bank of U.S. -- mostly govt-run bank, could give loans, charge interest, print $
    • 3: Excise Tax -- tax on whiskey, which had been so abundant that it had been used as currency (so much corn in US) (5 gallons per person per year consumed)
  59. Jackson's "Kitchen Cabinet"
    • did not get along with his official Cabinet
    • met in White House kitchen with trusted friends, drank whiskey, discussed matters
  60. Eerie Canal
    • 365 miles long, 40 feet wide, 4 feet deep
    • first & most successful canal of many (1825)
    • mostly built by Irish immigrants escaping Potato Famine
    • connected Hudson River & Atlantic to Mississippi River via the Great Lakes
  61. Alien & Sedition Acts
    • J. Adams (Pres.)
    • scared of people speaking out against federal govt
    • made 3 laws to allow fed to deport or detain suspected "enemies" of the state
    • very controversial
  62. Virginia & Kentucky Resolutions
    • Jefferson & Madison wrote, adopted by leg. of VA & KT
    • said Sedition Act was infringement on rights of states, states could nullify federal law w/in their borders (Doctrin of Nullification)
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HIST 17A Exam 2
2011-12-12 19:43:41

HIST 17A Exam 2
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