Int. Phys.

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leo25
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114928
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Int. Phys.
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2011-11-07 09:46:51
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adrenal thyroid repro endocrine pancreas bone pineal
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Integrative Physiology Exam 2
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  1. Where is aldosterone made?
    zona glomerulosa
  2. What is made in the zona fasiculata?
    cortisol
  3. Where are androgens made?
    zona reticularis
  4. What are the 3 main ways by which we get calcium?
    • 1. absorption by intestine
    • 2. reabsorption by bone
    • 3. rebsorption in the kidney (renal tubules) and exretion by the kidney as well
  5. T/F: Renal reabsorption of calcium in the kidney is not efficient.
    False; it is very efficient
  6. T/F: the extracellular fluid pool of calcium turns over a lot of calcium in a day (40-50 times a day).
    True
  7. What is the cause of kidney stones?
    The reabsorption of calcium in the kidney can decrease in hypercalcemia in order to help get rid of calcium, but it can't do enough, so you get kidney stones
  8. Which bone cells help to make the osteoid?
    osteoblasts
  9. An organic matrix composed of collagen fibers is the ____?
    osteoid
  10. Calcium phosphate occurs in the form of submicroscopic crystals called ________ that deposit on the osteoid.
    hydroxyapatite
  11. Where does the exchange of calcium occur in bones?
    between the surface of the crystals and the extracellular fluid
  12. T/F: the exchange of calcium is inversely proportional to crystal size.
    true; as crystal gets smaller (as we age), the more calcium that is deposited and this might be related to osteoporosis
  13. T/F: 99% of bone calcium phosphate is found in large, non-exchangeable or diffusion-locked crystals
    true!
  14. What are odontoblasts?
    osteoblasts responsible for bone formation in the teeth
  15. Which bone cells are responsible for bone formation?
    • osteoBlasts
    • blast=build
  16. Which bone cells synthesize osteoid on which apatite formation occurs?
    osteoblasts
  17. T/F: osteoblast are multinucleate?
    false
  18. _______ comprise endosteal membrane that lines cavities within bone?
    osteoblasts
  19. _______ are the bone cells responsible for bone reabsorption (destroying bone)?
    osteoclasts
  20. T/F: osteocytes are also uninucleate.
    true
  21. Which bone cells are multinucleate?
    osteoclasts
  22. What are the 3 hormones mainly responsible for maintaining calcium and phosphorous homeostasis?
    • 1. vitamin D3
    • 2. calcitonin
    • 3. parathyroid hormone
  23. Which bone related hormone is a secosteroid?
    vitamin D3
  24. Where is vitamin D3 made?
    all throughout the body
  25. Where is calcitonin made?
    the parafollicular cells of the THyroid gland
  26. Where is parathyroid hormone made?
    parathyroid glands
  27. The TSH receptor activates which 2 pathways?
    • IP3 pathway
    • cAMP pathway
  28. Elevated PKC and PKA levels increase the synthesis of what 4 things important in the thyroid pathway?
    • Na-I Symporter
    • H2O2 production
    • TPO production
    • uptake of colloid droplets
  29. T/F: both Hashimoto's and Grave's disease are autoimmune diseases.
    True
  30. What is another name for cholecalciferol?
    vitamin D3
  31. What are the 2 reasons why people of African heritage have an increased incidence of Rickett's?
    • they produce less vitamin D3 in their skin
    • they are lactose intolerant
  32. T/F: Vitamin D3 is active.
    False
  33. What is another name for calcitrol?
    1,25(OH)2D3 (the active form of vitamin D after all conversions)
  34. T/F: We need UVA sun rays to get Vitamin D.
    False; UVB
  35. Why do we not get enough Vitamin D from the sun?
    Because most of the sun present all day long is UVA and we actually need UVB, which is related to the angle of the rays. Therefore we just do not get enough, especially in WY
  36. Calcium uptake in the intestines is dependent on which protein?
    calbindin
  37. 1,25 VitaminD3 stimulates the synthesis of what 2 things?
    • calbindin
    • Calcium activated ATPase
  38. T/F: calcium concentrations in the intestine increase when calcium binds to calbindin.
    False
  39. Where are the receptors for Vitamin D?
    in the nucleus because it is a steroid
  40. Which hormone stimylates cartilage and bone growth?
    growth hormone
  41. Which hormone has permissive effects on growth hormone secretion and action?
    thyroid hormone
  42. T/F: being deficient in thyroid hormone could potentially cause a person to be short.
    true
  43. _____ ______ ______ are mediators of growth hormone action on osteoblasts?
    IGFs (insulin-like growth factors)
  44. High levels of _________stimulate PTH release, causing an increase in bone reabsorption and hypercalcemia?
    glucocorticoids like cortisol
  45. _______ block further growth of long bones, protect the adult skeleton from reabsorption, may reduce PTH release and prevent hypercalcemia, and effect the closure of the epiphyseal plate?
    Estrogens/androgens
  46. ____ can prevent osteoporosis after menopause, but may in turn cause stroke?
    estrogen/androgens
  47. T/F: calcitonin is secreted by the parathyroid gland.
    False
  48. _______ is secreted by the parafollicular or C cells of the thyroid gland?
    calcitonin
  49. Which hormone is a hypocalcemic factor?
    calcitonin
  50. Which hormone causes a decrease in plasma calcium levels?
    calcitonin
  51. How does calcitonin lower plasma calcium levels? (2 ways)
    • inhibits osteoclasts
    • antagonizes the actions of PTH on bone (not kidney)
  52. T/F: the parathyroid glands directly sense the level of calcium in the blood.
    true
  53. What are the two types of Parathyroid cells?
    • Chief cells (99%)
    • Oxyphil cells (fewer)
  54. Which hormone is a hypercalcemic factor?
    parathyroid hormone
  55. Which hormone causes an elevation in plasma calcium levels?
    PTH
  56. How does PTH elevate plasma calcium levels?
    by activating osteoclasts (indirectly) by osteoblasts responding to PTH and then secreting OAF, which activates osteoclasts, which then pull calcium out of bones and into the blood
  57. What is another way that PTH increases plasma calcium levels?
    • by increasing calcium reabsorption in the ascending loop of Henle and distal convoluted tubule
    • -does this by increasing the uptake of calcium ATPase and the Na-Ca antiporter
  58. PTH also indirectly increases calcium uptake in the intestines by doing what?
    increasin 1,25D3 production in the kidney by stimulating 1-hydroxylase synthesis
  59. What is required for PTH to act on bone?
    1,25D3
  60. If calcium blood levels are low, what hormone will be secreted?
    PTH
  61. If calcium blood levels are high, what hormone will be secreted and what hormone will be inhibited?
    calcitonin released, PTH inhibited
  62. What is the main cause of hypercalcemia in hospitalized patients?
    cancer
  63. How does cancer cause hypercalcemia?
    • PTHrp (PTH related peptide)
    • OAF (osteoClast act. factor)
  64. What hormone is made in the alpha cells of the pancreas?
    glucagon
  65. What hormone is made in the beta cells of the pancreas?
    insulin
  66. What hormone is made in the delta cells of the pancreas?
    somatostatin
  67. What is the signal transduction mechanism for estrogen, a steroid hormone?
    altering transcription of mRNA
  68. Which portion of the pituitary gland produces MSH?
    Pars Intermedia of the anterior pit
  69. T/F: The pars tuberalis produces hormones.
    False
  70. What hormones does the pars nervosa produce?
    • oxytoxin
    • vasopressin (ADH)
  71. What is the rate limiting enzyme of melatonin synthesis?
    N-acetyltransferase (NAT)
  72. What would happen if you were in constant darkness for several days?
    melatonin would still follow a circadian rhythm of about 25 hours
  73. If the PVN is destroyed, what will be the result?
    melatonin not secreted at all during a 24 hour period, but the SCN and eye are still functioning so the activity levels do not change
  74. What will be the result if the optic tract is severed?
    object will free run and if the periodicity is 25 hours, the actogram will shift 1 hour to the right every day
  75. What will be the result if the SCN is severed or lesioned?
    activity is completely random, no periodicity at all
  76. In females, what ducts atrophy as a result of apoptosis?
    Wolffian
  77. Androgens (testosterone) is made by what cells in males?
    Leydig
  78. Which cells secrete inhibin in the male?
    Sertoli cells
  79. Where are sperm produced?
    seminiferous tubules
  80. Where are sperm stored?
    epidydimal ducts
  81. Which hormone in the female increases a lot right before ovulation?
    estrogen
  82. Which enzyme converts Testosterone to DHT?
    5-alpha-reductase
  83. T/F: estrogen production in the follicles is controlled exclusively by LH.
    False; also fSH
  84. T/F: Estrogen production in the ovarian follicles involves both thecal and granulosa cells.
    True
  85. Which hormone do aromatase and 5-alpha reductase act on?
    testosterone
  86. T/F: Testosterone causes breast development in XY females.
    False; huge amounts of estrogen does
  87. T/F: Collagenase is secreted by the primordial follicle.
    False; only the mature follicle
  88. T/F: LH and FSH are secreted by the same cells.
    true; in the ant. pit
  89. T/F: LH and FSH act on the same cells.
    false
  90. Which cells in the female are located on the very outer edge of the follicle?
    thecal cells
  91. What hormone acts on the thecal cells?
    LH
  92. What does LH act to do in the thecal cells?
    LH stimulates production of testosterone
  93. Which cells are located in the inner layer of the follicle?
    granulosa cells
  94. What hormone acts on the granulosa cells?
    FSH
  95. What does FSH act to do in the granulosa cells?
    FSH converts testosterone to estrogen
  96. Which hormone stimulates the release of GnRH and is implicated in reproduction/the onset of puberty?
    kisspeptin
  97. Explain how it is possible for an XY individual to have XX genitalia?
    • they are androgen insensitive
    • they can't produce androgens
    • they have testes, but no penis or scrotum
    • they do not have a Wolffian duct
    • they do not have a Mullerian duct
    • they have a vagina that is a dead end
  98. Explain how the genitalia of a male fetus develops.
    • 1. SRY gene produces TDF
    • 2. Leydig cells produce Testosterone and MIH
    • 3. Testosterone is converted to DHT by 5-alpha-reductase
    • 4. DHT forms the penis and the scrotum
  99. Explain how it is possible for an XX individual to have XY genitalia.
    • **Congenital Adrenal Hyperplasia**
    • the enzyme for producing cortisol is absent so you get overproduction of androgens
    • no Wolffian duct
    • lots of Testosterone
    • large clitoris
    • intact Mullerian duct
    • behave like a male
    • salt wasting pathology
  100. What is the disease marked by high cortisol level?
    Cushing's
  101. What is the disease marked by low cortisol levels?
    Addison's
  102. What is the disease marked by high TH levels and is autoimmune?
    Grave's
  103. What is the disease marked by low TH levels and is autoimmune?
    Hashimoto's
  104. What is the disease marked by actual removal of the adrenal glands and therefore low cortisol levels?
    Nelson's
  105. T/F: thyroid hormones are water-soluble.
    false
  106. T/F: T3 (tri-iodothyronine) has a strong stimulatory effect on TRH secretion.
    False
  107. T/F: low cortisol levels cause skin discoloration in Addison's disease.
    True
  108. T/F: excess cortisol levels cause skin discoloration in Addison's disease.
    False
  109. What are 3 potential causes of goiter?
    • high iodine levels/increased iodine demand
    • iodine deficiency
    • selenium deficiency
  110. Which is more active, T3 or T4?
    T3
  111. Which is made in more amounts in our bodies, T3 or T4?
    T4 (thyroxine)
  112. T/F: Selenium is an essential element involved in thyroid hormone metabolism.
    True
  113. What ion is actively exchanged for iodine at the luminal surface of the follicular cell in the thyroid gland?
    Sodium (Na-I symporter)
  114. T/F: Cortisol ameliorates diabetes mellitus.
    False; it aggravates it by increasing blood glucose
  115. T/F: Cortisol has an affinity for the aldosterone receptor equal to that of aldosterone.
    True
  116. T/F: Eating too much licorice can cause high blood pressure due to an increase in sodium levels.
    True
  117. T/F: Cortisol is synthesized from cholesterol and pregnenolone.
    True
  118. Angiotensinogen is converted to angiotensin by ______?
    renin
  119. Angiotensin I is converted to Angiotensin II by ______?
    ACE
  120. What enzyme converts testosterone to estrogen?
    aromatase
  121. What enzyme converts testosterone to DHT?
    5-alpha-reductase

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