Chapter 25.txt

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Chapter 25.txt
2011-11-06 16:44:39

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  1. Four main functions of water
    transportation of substances to and from the cell, aid heat regularion by providing sweat, assist maintenance of H+, serve as medium for enzymatic action of digestion
  2. Adults have what % of water
    female-60%, men-50%
  3. Sodium
    135-145, regulates water balance
  4. Potassium
  5. Calcium
    8.4-10.6, blood coagulation, muscle activity
  6. Magnesium
  7. Phosphate
    2.7-4.5 necessary for formation of ATP
  8. Chloride
    96-106, helps maintain acid base balance, impt for formation of HCl
  9. Bicarbonate
    HCO3, neutralizing buffer
  10. Hypovolemia
    decreased volume of plasma
  11. Sources of H2O in 24 hours
    Oral-1500, food-800, Metabolism 200
  12. Loss of H2O in 24 hours
    Urine-1500, Perspiration-400, Feces-200, expired air-400
  13. Extracellular fluid
    1/3 of total body water; transports stuff to and from cells, high in Na
  14. Intracellular fluid
    2/3 of total body water; fluid contained in the cell walls, high in K
  15. Intravascular fluid
    fluid within blood vessels, plasma and fluid within blood cells, large amounts of protein and electrolytes
  16. Interstitial fluid
    fluid in the spaces surrounding the cells, high in Na
  17. Transcellular fluid
    aqueous humor, saliva, CSF, pleural, GI secretions, urinary system and lymphatics
  18. Diffusion
    Greater to less
  19. Osmosis
    Less to greater
  20. Filtration
    water and suspended substances outward through a semipermeable membrane
  21. 3 passive transport
    osmosis, diffusion, filtration
  22. Signs of dehydration
    dizziness, dark urine, decreased urine, dry, elevated temp, flat neck veins, increased pulse rate, poor turgor, postural hypotension, thick saliva, thirst, weak, thread pulse, weakness
  23. Signs of overhydration
    Weight gain, crackles, slow bounding pulse, elevated BP, edema
  24. Causes of edema
    kidney failure, heart failure, liver failure, hormonal disorders
  25. Most common electrolyte imbalance
  26. Death ph rates
    below 6.8 or above 7.8
  27. Three control mechanisms for ph
    blood buffer system, lungs, urinary system
  28. Increase in H+
  29. Decrease in H+
  30. Respiratory acidosis
    COPD, opiate use, airway obstructions, pneumonia, asthma or chst injuries; slow, shallow respirations; PaCO2>45
  31. Metabolic acidosis
    shock, diabetic ketoacidosis, renal failure, diarrhea, HCO3-<22; hypokalemia as the kidney retains K and excretes H
  32. Respiratory alkalosis
    hyperventilation PaCO2<35; anxiety, high fever, or OD of ASA
  33. Metabolic alkalosis
    vomiting, excessive antacid, hypokalemia HCO3->26; Kussmal�s respirations
  34. Effects of acidosis
    depresses nervous system, headache, lethargy, weakness and confusion
  35. Effects of alkalosis
    inability of the nervous sytem, restlessness, muscle twitching, tingling and numbness, tetany
  36. Weight gain or loss of 1 kg in 24 hours indicates
    gain or loss of 1 L of fluid
  37. Rapid breathing may cause alkaline by expelling large amounts of CO2 or it may be the body�s way to compensate for acid ph
  38. Acid base nursing diagnoses
    Deficient/excess fluid volume, risk for imbalanced fluid volume, ineffective tissue perfusion, decreased cardiac output, impaired gas exchange, ineffective breathing pattern