Chapter 26.txt

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Chapter 26.txt
2011-11-06 17:12:41

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  1. GI system
    mouth, pharynx, esophagus, small intestine and lg intestine
  2. GI accessory organs
    salivary glands, liver, gallbladder, pancreas
  3. What GI changes occur with aging
    increased caries and tooth loss, decreased sense of taste, decreased gag reflex, decreased muscle tone at sphincters, decreased gastric secretions, decreased peristalsis
  4. Protein supplies 4 calories per gram
  5. Six nutrients
    protein, carbs, fats, vitamins, minerals, water
  6. Complete proteins
    animal sources
  7. Incomplete
    plant sources (soybeans)
  8. Grains
    6 oz every day
  9. Veggies
    2 � cups
  10. Fruits
    2 cups
  11. Milk
    3 cups
  12. Meat and beans
    5 � oz
  13. Cholesterol level
    less than 300 mg per day
  14. Sodium
    less than 2300 mg per day
  15. Protein intake
    46-56 g per day
  16. When does body require more protein
    illness and rapid tissue growth (pregnancy and lactation)
  17. Protein requirement
    0.8 g per kg
  18. 3 types of vegetarian
    lacto-ovo-dairy, eggs, plany; lactoveg-no eggs; vegan-no animal sources, including honey
  19. Carbs provide
    4 calories per gram
  20. 3 types of carbs
    simple(ose sugars), complex (bread, pasta, etc), fiber 21-38 g per day
  21. Fat provides
    9 calories per gram
  22. Functions of fat
    source of fatty acids, adds flavor/texture, dissolves and transports fat soluble vitamins and nutrients, insulates and controls body temp, makes food smell good, cushions body organs, facilitaites nerve transmissions, gives feeling of fullness after eating
  23. 3 essential fatty acids
    linoleic (corn, safflower, sunflower oils), oleic (olive oil and beef), linolenic (green leafy veg, walnuts, pecans, soybean products)
  24. Fat soluble vitamins
    A, D, E, K
  25. Minerals are essential for
    proper muscle and nerve function and act as catalysts for many cellular functions; acid/base balance
  26. Functions of minerals
    maintain rigidity and strength in teeth and bones, facilitate contraction and relaxation of muscles, assist in blood clotting and tissue repair and growth
  27. Patient should take in how much water
    output plus 500ml
  28. By 6 mo of age,
    weight should double and end of first year, birth weight should triple
  29. BMI
    normal 18.5-24.9; <18.5 underweight; 25 and 29.9 overweight, above 30 obese, above 40 morbidly obese