Psychology Chapter 3

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  1. What is Attachment thoery?
    Describes the dynamics of long-term relationships between humans.
  2. What is Secure attachment?
    Is an emotional bond between children and caregivers
  3. Who is John Bowlby?
    He was the first attachment theorist, describing attachment as a "lasting psychological connectedness between human beings".
  4. What is Ainsworth's stages of attachment?
    Its the three major styles of attachment: secure attachment, ambivalent-insecure attachment, and avoidant-insecure attachment.
  5. What is Sensitive periods?
    Is the most important periods of childhood development between the ages of six months and two to three years.
  6. What is Clear cut attachment?
    Is the third phase of childhood devlopment, between the ages of six-seven months.
  7. What is Harlow's rhesus monkey study?
    Was maternal-separation and social isolation experiments on rhesus monkeys, which demonstrated the importance of care-giving and companionship in social and cognitive development.
  8. What is Piaget's stages of cognitive development?
    Piget saw children as budding scientists who actively strive to make sense of the perceptual world.
  9. What is Attachment in the making?
    Is the most important periods of childhood devleopment between the ages of 3-4 months.
  10. What is Sensorimotor?
    The first stage of Piaget’s theory lasts from birth to approximately age two and is centered on the infant trying to make sense of the world.
  11. What is Preoperational?
    In Piaget's stages of cognitive development, a period between ages two and six during which a child learns to use language.
  12. What is Concrete oprational?
    Begins around age seven and continues until approximately age eleven. During this time, children gain a better understanding of mental operations.
  13. What is Formal operations?
    Begins at approximately age twelve to and lasts into adulthood. During this time, people develop the ability to think about abstract concepts.
  14. What is Object permanence?
    Is used to describe a child's ability to know that objects continue to exist even though they can no longer be seen or heard.
  15. What is Egocentricity?
    The tendency to perceive, understand and interpret the world in terms of the self, and being over preoccupied with ones own internal world.
  16. What is Animism?
    The Balief that inanimate objects move because of will or spirit.
  17. What is Conservation?
    The basic properties of substances such as weight and mass remain the same when superficial features changes.
  18. What is Reversibility?
    Recognition that process can be undone, that things can be made as they were.
  19. What is Kohlberg's theory of moral development?
    The theory holds that moral reasoning, the basis for ethical behavior, has six identifiable developmental stages, each more adequate at responding to moral dilemmas than its predecessor.
  20. What is Preconventional level?
    A period during which moral judgements are based largeley on expectation of rewards or punishments.
  21. What is Conventional level?
    (A "law and order" approach to morality)
    A period during which moral judgements largely reflect social conversations.
  22. What is Postconevntional level?
    A period during which moral judgements are derived from moral principels and people look to themselves to set moral standards.
  23. What is Puberty?
    The period of physical development during which sexual reproduction first becomes possible.
  24. What is Erikson's stages of psychosocial development.
    Erikson hypothesizes eight stages of psychosocial development, each represents a life crisis.
  25. What is Trust vs mistrust?
    Erikisons first stage of psychosocial development, during which children do or do not come to trust that primary caregivers and the enviroment will meet their needs.
  26. What is Autonomy vs. shame and doubt?
    Its the second stage of Erik Erikson’s theory of psychosocial development where children at this stage are focused on developing a greater sense of self-control.
  27. What is Initiative vs. guilt?
    Its the third stage of Erik Erikson’s theory of psychosocial development.This stage occurs during the preschool years, between the ages of three and five. During the initiative versus guilt stage, children begin to assert their power and control over the world through directing play and other social interaction.
  28. What is Industry vs. inferiority?
    Its the fourth stage of Erik Erikson's theory of psychosocial development. The stage occurs during childhood between the ages of six and eleven. School and social interaction play ara an important role during this time of a child’s life. Through social interactions, children begin to develop a sense of pride in their accomplishments and abilities.
  29. What is Indentity vs. role confusion?
    • The adolescent is newly concerned with how they appear to others.
    • The Superego identity is the accrued confidence that the outer sameness and continuity prepared in the future are matched by the sameness and continuity of one's meaning for oneself, as in the promise of a career.
  30. What is Intimacy vs. isolation?
    Erikson's life crisis of young adulthood, which is characterized by the task of developing abiding intimate relationships.
  31. What is Generativity vs. stagnation?
    Erikson's term for the crisis of middle adulthood, characterized by the task of being productive and contributing to younger generations.
  32. What is Integrity vs. despair?
    Erikson's term for the crisis of late adulthood characterized by the task of maintaining one's sense of identity despite physical deterioration.
  33. What is Physical development in young adulthood?
    The young adult is in the "prime of life" all the body's internal organs and body systems have reached maturity and are at peak functioning in terms of strength and efficiency.
  34. What is Physical development in late adulthood?
    Is generally considered to begin at about age 65. Erik Erikson suggests that at this time it is important to find meaning and satisfaction in life rather than to become bitter and disillusioned, that is, to resolvethe conflict of integrity vs. despair.
  35. What is Crystallized intelligence in adulthood?
    One's lifetime of inteellectual achievement, as shown largely through vocabulary and knowledge of world affairs.
  36. What is Fluid intelligence in adulthood?
    Mental flexibility as shown in learning rapidly to solve new kinds of problems.
  37. What is Successful aging?
    Successful ageing consists of three components: Low probability of disease or disability;High cognitive and physical function capacity and Active engagement with life.
  38. What is Levinson's seasons of life?
    The Life Structure theory of adult development.
  39. What is Early adult translation?
    Is a period that many of us reach or reached our peak in physical performance. It is said that early adulthood starts at about 18 years of age and ends at about 30-40 years of age. For many people the early adulthoodphase was a time of developing a sense of self and identity, learning to become independent, choosing a career,having a family and kids of your own.
  40. What is Age 30 translation?
    A period between 28 and 33 years of age when an individual may reevaluate the choices made in his or her twenties.
  41. What is Settling down?
    After the relative upheaval of the early 30's, the middle to late 30's are often characterized by settling down: involving 'what we would call major life investments, work, family, friends, community activities, and values.
  42. What is Kubler-ross' stages of death and dying?
    Goingthrough the 5 stages of death: Denial, Anger, Bargaining, Depression, and Acceptance.
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Psychology Chapter 3
Psychology Exam 5
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