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What is "level of amenity"?
refers to level of finishes & equipment, as in: "kitchen with the granite counters and built-in subzero fridge..." or "office with en suite restrooom, wall to wall carpet..." (examples of a high level of amenity)
The term “policy board” is
associated with which of the following agreements?
(A) joint venture (B) architect-consultant (C) association (D) loose association
- (A) joint venture
- AIA document C801 A policy board for a joint venture includes a representative and an alternate representative
With who do the Contract Documents create a contractual relationship with?
Owner and Contractor
What do the Contract Documents consist of?
- - agreement btwn owner/contractor
- -conditions of the contract
- -the drawings
- -the specs
- -addenda used prior to execution of the contract
- -modifications issued after the contract
to secure against loss or damage
indemnification clause - attempts to hold harmless both the owner and arch for damages or injuries with others white whom the arch does not have an contractural relation with.
initial decision maker (most commonly the architect but can be a 3rd party)
person who makes decisions/judge on claims made by the owner/contractor
construction change directive
instructs the contractor to make changes agreed upon by the owner and architect. the contractor can issue a change order after the CCD has been made
change in contract documents agreed upon by the Contractor, Owner and Architect
if payment to subcontractors has not been paid they can file for a lien. if the lien is not paid the property can be foreclosed by the lien holder. the owner is then responsible for payment directly to the subcontractor. typ the owner pays the contractor then the contractor pays the subs.
who is responsible for remediation of haz materials if found on the site?
only if it is not fault of the contractor
special conditions vs supplement conditions
special conditions differ from supp conditions in that they would only be written once for unique conditions. supp conditions can be used by the same client on several differnt projects and are not project specific.
in regards to the contractor - if their work has minor defect errors.
courts do not require the contractor to be perfect.
deductive change order
something in the project that reduces the contractors scope of work
damages that the owner can inccur like double rent because the contractor finishes the project late.
what is surety
bonding company (co-signer) responsible to pay if the party can not pay
flow down contracting
GC contract is the same as the sub contractors contract or architects contract is the same as the consultants
zoning codes deal with
- -use of peice of property
- -density of buildings within a district and on a lot
- -the locations of buildings ona property
- -parking and loading
- Standards-Writing Organizations
- ASTM - organization that publishes standards and tests procedures
National Fire Protection Agency - develops standards related to the cause and prevention of fires
- American National Standards Institute
- does not write standards but approves standards
- Testing Laboraatories
- Nationally Recognized Testing Laboratory - an independant lab that tests products
- Listed vs. Classified
reimbursing money that was paid out by the party that was determined to not be at fault by the at fault's insurance.
means of egress
continuous and unobstructed path of vertical and horizontal egress travel from any point of a building to a public way
the sum of the ratios within any story be no greater than_____.
- actual buildling area/ by the allowable building area
- reference: allowable building heights and areas table.
a public way leading from a means of egress should have a clear width of
gross floor area includes
- toilet rooms
- mech rooms
net floor area includes only the space actually used
exit width factors
determined by multiplying the occupant load by .3 for stairways or .2 for other egress components (doors)
types of business organization
- sole proprietorship - owned by one person
- partnerships - general and limited partnerships. GP two or more people share in the management, profits, and risks. LP has general partners and limited partners. the LP's are simply investors that share in the proffit.
- corporation - association of individuals (if the corporation is sued, personal assests are not at risk)
- LLC (limited liability companies) LLP (partners) - combine parnerships and corps that have members and managers. non members can be managers.
- joint ventures - temp association of two or more people for the purpose of completing a project. (teated as a partnership and cannot be sued like a corporation can)
it takes the total fee the designer will receive for the project and allocates it to the schedule and staff members that will work on the project
full wall schedule
an interactive schedule using index cards and a wall
a portion of the contractors payment witheld until the end of the project to make sure the job gets done and to cover and lien claims.
building codes vs. zoning codes
building codes establish min. req. for the construction of buildings to ensure public health, safety and welfare.
zoning codes typ address issues of land use, density, far, building env and massing, parking, setbacks, signage, lighting, buffers
establishment of common standards for rooms, spaces and activities based on the measurement of similiar facilities.
net area does not include
(net assignable area)
- circulation space, mech shafts, elect rooms wall and structural thickness etc
- (unassigned areas)
sum of the net assigned areas and the unassigned areas equals
the gross building area
what is the net to gross ratio?
the ratio of the net assignable and the unassigned areas often refered to as efficiency
(ex: a hospital has a low efficiency ratio becuase of the small rooms and large coridors)
gross area=net assignable area/net to gross ratio
use to find the gross area (to be planned for)
mona lisa has no_____
a snail can ______ for 3 yrs
All ________ float in water.
If a statue in the park of a person on a horse has both front legs in the air, the person died as a result of wounds received in battle; if the horse has all four legs on the ground, the person died of natural causes
2 different ways to determine space relationships
- adjecency matrix
- agjacency diagram (like a bubble idagram)
six different space organizational concepts
- radial clustered
different types of circulation patterns
- dumbell (linear with two major elements at the ends
- doughnut (circular or complete loop)
que es proxemics?
The study of measurable distances between people as they interact (like intimate, social, personal space)
four basic variables in developing a construction budget
- avail. funds
long term interest on a project (usually not included in the project budget because it is an ongoing cost to the owner)
different methods of budgeting (estimating costs)
- project comparison method (accuracy of about 15%-20%)
- area or volume method (5%-15%)
- assembly or system method (10%)
- parameter method
- unit cost method
project comparison method of estimating costs
uses past projects of sim. scope and function to estimate the cost of a new project
area or volume method of estimating costs for a project
- usually used when prelim design is done when the arch has a good idea of the size of the project
- the average cost per unit of area
assembly or system method of determining construction costs
- done durring schemetic design
- budgeting is based on major subsystems (foundations, roofing, exterior walls, floor finishes specialities, etc.)
- usually include the contractors overhead and profit
parameter method of estimating costs
- usually done durring the later stages of schematic design and early stages od CD's
- involves itemizing construction quantities and unit costs (instead of just one line item for flooring it would be broken into wood flooring, vinyl tile, carpeting, etc.)
- its an easier way to brign the budget to what is expected becuase if the cost is too high you can for example VE out all of the wood flooring and use VCT since you know the value for each.
- matric costing-lists various alternatives and their total costs
project comparison method,area or volume, assembly or system, parameter are types of
ways to estimate costs of a project
- 2 additional components of construction costs are the contractors overhead (10%-20%) and proffit (5%-20%)
- total overhead and proffit ranges from 15%-40%
general overhead consists of
- the cost to run a business
- office rent
- secretarial help
- other reoccuring costs
project overhead consists of
- money it takes to complete a project (not including labor, materials or equimpent)
- temp offices
- project telephones
- sanitory facilities
- trash removal
general overhead vs project overhead
GO is basically for the business and PO is for specifically for the project
unit cost method of determining cost for a project
- when the project is broken down into unit cost and the labor required to install them.
- it is the most accurate way to estimate (can only be used when CD's and specs are complete)
- includes all overhead and proffitt
what are two conditions that must be accounted for in developing any project budget?
geographical location and inflation
two major parts of a project schedule
- design time
- construction time
fast tract scheduling
- method overlaps design and construction phase
- seperate contracts are established and can be bid and awarded by itself to avoid delaying other construction.
- requires close coordination
techniques for developing schedule
- wall chart
- fee projection chart (kinda like a bar chart)
parts of the programming process
- establishing goals
- collecting facts
- uncovering concepts (reference the 24 programmatic concepts)
- determining needs
- stating the problem
major considerations during programming
floor area ratio
ratio of the gross floor area of the structure to the ara of the lot on which the building is situated
bulk plane restriction
an imaginary inclined plane beginning at the lot line and sloping back toward the site at a specified angle. the building can not be built over this imaginary line
a deviation from the zoning regulations
the set of zoning regulations established by a local jurisdiction that regulates certain building practices with the jurisdiction.
a standard portion (generally a paragraph or more) of a written document, such as a contract or architectural spec, that appears in all similar documents.
a change in zoning resulting in a decreased allowable density
zero lot line
part of a zoning regulations setback requirements that allows a building to be constructed up to the property line with no setbacks
development impact fees
cost charged to developers for off-site infrastructure improvments made necessary by new development.
pro forma statement
statement of all the expenses of developing a project
four treatment approaches for historic structures
preservation of a historic structure
retains histroic fabric including all changes that have been made over time
rehabilition of a historic structure
retaining and repairing historic materials but is more apt to replacement of materials becuase building may be mre deteriorated prior to work.
restoration of a historic structure
retention of materials from the most significant time in a propertys history and removing materials from other periods
ex: kauffman house, palms springs
reconstruction of a historic structure
- is the least historically acurate
- allows to recreate a building, site, structure etc.
30 decibles = sleep, study, whisper
50-60 decibles = comfort (kitchen, conversation)
85 decibles = safety threshold
90-100 decibles = rock band
i dont exactly know why this would be on the practice exam for this test. curioius.
doubling the distance between source and ear diminishes sound level ____ decibles
- (it reduces sound intensity by 1/4)
walk slope = ________
curb cut = __________
ramp = ____________
- 1:20 (5%)
- 3' max slope of 1:10
describe a blocking and stacking diagram
- stacking: as an activity of programming, assigning floors or area of floors to particular departments base uppon their adjacency requirements and support requirements
- blocking: as an activity of programming, assigning departments to a particular area of a floor based upon adjacency and support requirements.
- system of rights and suties that determine the reasonable use, duties, and allocations of water to owners of a waterfront property
- rights ensure that riparian owners can make reasonable use of water adjacent to their propert while protecting the rights of the other ripirian owners
- person must own land adjacent to a body of water to be considered a ripirian owner.
types of assesments/surveys used on existing buildings
- laser scanning - quickly and remotly measuring existing spaces
- photogrammetry - takes more time, control points must be established and hand surveyed to establish base coordinate system
- field measurements - taken by hand
in considering the project budget, the site development costs are about______of the building costs?
10% to 20%
in considering the project budget, professional services are about ______of the total construction costs?
5% to 10%
describe the differences between matrix methods of budgeting and assembly (system) methods of budgeting
- matrix method of budgeting evaulates alt. construction components (ex: alts in floor material)
- assembly methods of budgeting evaulates the buildings systems (foundations, flooring, roofing. but does not specifiy in each in detail, only general and lumped together)
describe the parameter method of budgeting
- itemizes costs associated with each of the buildings components
- eacy to evaluate costs implications and revise the budget by choosing those that fit within the budget.
(ex: list and $ for different types of flooring. you can easily take out wood flooring if you are over budget and use linoleum)
methods of assesments to determine the value of property for the purpose of taxes
- income approach
- market value
- cost approach (value of property can be estimated by adding the land value and the depreciated value of any improvements)
the cost of asbestos removal is borne by
asbestos is crazy
- naturally occuring mineral
- laboratory ananlysis is the only way to positively identify samples
- used for spray fireproffing, sound proofing, pipe insulation, ceiling and floor tiles
- majore risk comes from inhaling the fibers
- ACM = asbestos containing materials
- in the 70's spray applications were banned
- occupant health risk are less of a concern if no children will be living in the building
- EPA and OSHA control exposure to asbestos
- this sh!t causes cancers
what is a brownfield?
Brownfields are abandoned, idle or under-used industrial and commercial facilities where expansion or redevelopment is complicated by real or perceived environmental contamination. Land recycling is the re-use of land that is unused or under-utilized, whether or not it is contaminated. Both of these strategies are important for reclaiming the city and improving its social and economic vitality.
refers to something organic (wood , fiber, paper, cotton, etc.) that the moul can use as an energy source. Mold cannot eat inorganic materials like concrete, brick, gypsum (but it love the paper on drywall)
Enviornmental Assesment Statement
- EIA and EIS
- Environmental impact Assessment (EIA) assess possible impact both possivite and negative - natural, social, economic
- Environmental impact Statement (EIS) a document required by NEPA for federal government agency actions. a tool for decision making
- Trinity Church, Boston (1872)
- by Henry Hobson Richardson
- way to encourage privete developers to provide amenities for public use in exchange for the opportunity to build larger or taller structure on site
- value of additional leasesable floor area must exceed the cost of providing the public amenity to be a true incentive
- must include a base floor area and a bonus ratio (FAR)
- Procurement and contracting Requirements
- General Requirements
- Existing Conditions
Wood, Plastics, Composites
- Special Construction
Basis of payment
- method used to determine how much the contractor will be paid
- Stipulated Sum - fixed amount (usually used with a bid)
- Cost plus fee - all cost to complete work plus contractors overhead and profit (owner does not know the cost of work when the contract is signed)
- GMP - Guaranteed Maximum Price
- Unit Price - priced by estimation of volume
Schedule of values
- the scope of work the contractor does broken down into categories which have an assigned value to them to determine payment by owner.
- the architect usually reviews
statute of repose
for lawsuits against contractors or architects begins to run at the end of construction or whenever services were last provided
cost of work is the
- total cost of the project
- it does not include compensation to the architect or the architects consultants, cost of land, financing costs
time based methods of calculating compenstation for architectural services
- 1. multiple of direct salary expense
- 2. multiple of direct personal expense (includes the salaries of people working on the job and their required benefits PLUS overhead and profit.
- 3. professional fee plus expenses
- 4. hourly billing rate
stipulated sum, percentage cost of the work, square footage, unit costs, multiple of consultants billings and royaly are forms of
methods of calculating compenstation for architectural services
what is utilization ratio
- it determines the amout of time spent on billable work as a percentage of total time the employee is compensated
- UR=billable hours/total hours
- lower level employees have a higher UR
schedules are impacted by
- size of project
- complexity of project
- number of people working on the project
- client action/reation time
types of project schedules
- full wall schedule
- bar chart
- CPM diagram
CMatRisk contracts with the subcontractors who are bound only to the CMatRisk
types of project financing
- blanket loan - divide and sell back
- bond - the bond issuer receives $ from the buyer and in exchange promises to repay the principal with interest
- bridge loan - short term loan (used to purchace or finance a project quickly)
- construction loan - finance the building for the duration of construction
- hard money loan- used where there is a distressed financial situation
- mezzanine loan - loan secured by collateral
- mortgage loan - lien