Psychiatric (terms)

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Psychiatric (terms)
2011-11-09 07:01:52
Psychiatric terms definitions

Psychiatric terms and definitions
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  1. Abstract thinking
    • the ability to conceptualize ideas
    • e.g. proverbs
  2. Abstinence Syndrome
    Physical signs and symptoms that occur when the addictive substance is reduced or withheld; also referred to as withdrawal
  3. Abuse
    excessive use of a substance that differs from societal norms and causes clinically significant impairment
  4. Affect
    the external manifestation of feeling or emotion which is assessed by facial expressions, tone of voice and body language
  5. Akathisia
    regular rhythmic movements, usually of lower limbs, or constant pacing (often a side effect of antipsychotic meds)
  6. Ambivalence
    the holding, at the same time, of two opposing emotions, attitudes, ideas or wishes toward the same person, situation, or object
  7. Anergia
    absence of energy caused by changes in brain chemistry, anatomy or both
  8. Anhedonia
    the inability to experience pleasure; a symptom noted in depression and schizophrenia
  9. Anticholinergic side effects
    • symptoms include dry mouth, constipation, urinary retention, blurred vision and dry mucus memebranes
    • (side effects of TCA's and neuroleptics)
  10. Apathy
    lack of feeling, interest, or emotion; indefference in that is occasionally a mechanism for avoiding intense emotion
  11. Associative looseness
    a disturbance in thinking in which the ideas shift from one subject to another in an unrelated maner
  12. Attention-deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD)
    relatively common disorder of childhood onset characterized by inattention, impulsiveness and overactivity
  13. Autism
    preoccupation with self without concern for external reality; a self-made private world of the individual with schizophrenia
  14. Avolition
    lack of motivation
  15. Blackout
    period in which the drinker functions socially but for which the drinker has no memory
  16. Blocking
    unconscious interruption in train of thought
  17. Borderline personality disorder
    a disorder characterized by distorted images of self, impulsive, and unpredictable behavior, marked shifts in mood, and instability in relationships with others
  18. Boundaries
    those functions that maintain a clear distinction among individuals within a family or group. May be clear, diffuse, rigid or inconsistent
  19. Catatonia
    immobility as a result of psychological causes
  20. Child Abuse
    harmful, physical, emotional, sexual and/or verbal behavior inflicted on a child
  21. Circumstantial speech
    indiertness (such as "I am so loving this)and delay before the person gets to the point or answers a question, countless details or explanations
  22. Codependency
    stress-related preoccupation with an addicted persons life, leading to extreme dependence on that person
  23. Cognition
    the act, process, or result of knowing, learning, or understanding
  24. Concrete thinking
    thinking grounded in the immediate experience rather than abstraction

    use of literal meaning without ability to consider abstract meaning (eg "don't cry over spilled milk" might be interpreted as meaning "OK, I'll cry over the sink")
  25. Confabulation
    unconscious filling of gaps in memory with imagined or untrue experiences that the person believes but have no basis in reality
  26. Conversion
    unconscious defense mechanism in which anxiety is displayed as a physical symptom that has no organic cause
  27. Countertransference
    the tendency of the health professional to displace onto the client feelings that are a response to people in the health profession's past. May be positive or negative
  28. Delusion
    a fixed or false belief not consistent with the persons intelligence and culture; unamenable to reason
  29. Dependence
    state in which a drug user must take a usual or an increasing dose of a drug to prevent the onset of abstinence syndrome, withdrawal or both
  30. Dual Diagnosis
    the term dual diagnosis refers to the presence of at least one psychiatric disorder in addition to a substance abuse or dependency problem. the psychiatric disorder might be a mental illness or a personality disorder. an example of a patient with a dual diagnosis is an individual with chronic schizophrenia and alcohol abuse
  31. Dyskinesia
    involuntary muscular activity, such as a tic, spasm or myoclonus (jerk)
  32. Dystonia
    abnormal muscle tonicity resulting in impaired voluntary movement
  33. Echolalia
    psychopathologic repeating of words of one person by another; noted in types of schizophhrenia
  34. Echopraxia
    imitation of the body position of another
  35. Euthymia
    normal mood state
  36. Extrapyramidal Side Effects

    irrversible (late) tardive dyskinesia

    caused by phenothiazines or other psychotropic drugs
  37. Flight of Ideas
    speech pattern demonstrated by a rapid transition from topic to topic, frequently without completing any of the preceding ideas; prominent in manic states
  38. Grandiosity
    exaggerated belief in or claims about one's importance or identity
  39. Hallucination
    a sense perception for which no external stimulus exsists

    false sensory perceptions not associated with real external stimuli; might involve any of the 5 senses: auditory, visual, olfactory, gustatory, or tactile
  40. Hypomania
    an elevated mood with symptoms less severe than mania. No impairment in reality testing and symptoms do not markedly impair persons functioning
  41. Ideas of reference
    the false impression that outside events have special meaning for oneself
  42. Illusion
    an error in the perception of a sensory stimulus

    misinterpretation of a sensory input; observed in alcoholic withdrawal and delirious states
  43. Insight
    understanding and awareness of the reasons for and meaning behind one's motives or behavior
  44. Judgement
    the ability to make logical, rational decisions
  45. Labile
    characterized by rapid shifts in mood, unstable
  46. Metabolic Tolerance
    process that occurs when the body is more efficient at metabolizing a substance
  47. Mutism
    refusal to speak
  48. Negativism
    motiveless resistane to all instruction
  49. Neologism
    a word that a person makes up and uses

    new word created by the patient for psychological reasons; noted in some types for schizophrenia
  50. Neuroleptic Malignant Syndrome
    muscle rigidity, fever, elevated white count, rare sometimes fatal side effect of neuroleptic drugs
  51. Obsession
    an idea, impulse or emotion that a person cannot put out of his or her consciousness, can be mild to severe
  52. Paronoia
    extreme suspiciousness of others and their actions
  53. Pharmacologic Tolerance
    tolerance seen when higher blood levels are required to produce a given effect
  54. Phobia
    irrational fear, person is aware that it is irrational
  55. Perseveration
    involuntary repetition of the same thought, phase or motor response
  56. Primary gain
    anxiety relief resulting from the use of defense mechanisms
  57. Psychosis
    pronounced distortion or diorganization of affective response, reality testing impaired, hallucinations or delusions

    inability to recognize reality, complicated by severe thought disorders and the inability to relate to others
  58. Reframing
    changes the viewpoint of a situation and replacing it with another viewpoint that alters the meaning
  59. Religosity
    preoccupation with religious ideas or content
  60. Resiliency
    capability to withstand stressors without permanent dysfunction or developmental delay
  61. Reuptake
    the return of neurotransmitters to the presynaptic cell after comunication with receptors on the postsynaptic cell
  62. Schizophrenia
    severe dixturbance of thought and associative looseness, impaired reality testing and limited socialization
  63. Secondary gain
    those advantages a person realizes from whatever symptoms or behaviors he or she employs. May include increased attention from others, avoidance of responsibilities, financial gain
  64. Self Mutilation
    the act of self-induces pain or injury without the intent to kill oneself
  65. Splitting
    all good or all bad, inability to integrate the positives and negative of onself or others
  66. Tangentiality
    a disturbance in associative thinking in which the speaker goes off topic
  67. Tardive Dyskinesia
    involuntary tonic muscle spasms typically involving the tongue, fingers, toes, neck, trunk or pelvis
  68. Transference
    experiencing thoughts and feelings toward a person (often a therapist that were originally held toward a signigicant person in one's past)
  69. withdraw
    act or process of turning inward to avoid a perceived enviromental threat; physiologic response to cessation of a adictive substance
  70. Word Salad
    a mixture of words meaningless to the listener and to the speaker as well