Analytical Chemistry.txt

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Analytical Chemistry.txt
2011-11-07 10:09:52

Analytical Chemistry
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  1. E = hv = hc/lambda
    • E = energy of light
    • v = frequency
    • lambda = wavelength
    • c = speed of light (constant) (3 x 108)
    • h = planks constant (constant)
  2. Wave number
  3. Atomic emission spectroscopy
    flame used to excite metal atoms and the light is passed through a prism to create an emission or line spectrum. an unknown substance can be matched with known metal spectrum.
  4. Infrared spectroscopy
    • Identification of organic compounds. (good for functional groups)
    • molecules absorb infrared radiation and bend or stretch.
  5. Double beam infrared spectrometer
    • source of infrared light
    • wavelength selector (monochromator)
    • beam splitter
    • sample and reference cell
    • detector
  6. Mass spectrometry
    • to identify isotopes and relative isotopic masses and abundances, this can be used to find relative atomic masses.
    • analytical tool for molecules - breaks molecules (fragments them) apart
    • used to identify substances in urine and blood
  7. Nuclear magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy
    used for structure of organic molecules
  8. Atomic Absorption Spectroscopy
    can be used for analysys of polluting metals in waterways and presence of sodium ions in mineral water. (testing everything with metal concentration)

    Monochromatic light source needed
  9. Chromatography
    used for separating complex mixtures, used to test for the presence of banned substances in urine and forensic testing
  10. Retention factor Rf
    Rf = distance moved by component / distance moved by solvent
  11. Visible and UV spectroscopy
    used for analysis of hemoglobin in blood and the analysis of nitrates and phosphates in water samples.
  12. A = Elc
    • A = Absorbance
    • E = molar absorptivity
    • l = path length
    • c = concentration of solution
  13. 1H NMR peaks
    • single peak = neighbouring group is hydroxyl
    • doublet = neighbouring carbon atom has 1 hydrogen
    • Triplet = neighbouring carbon atom has 2 hydrogen
    • quartet = neighbouring carbon has 3 hydrogen
  14. Gas - Liquid Chromatography
    uses for analysing blood alcohol levels, monitoring pollutants in air, analysing foods, oil spills.
  15. High Pressure Liquid Chromatography
    • Testing Pharmaceutical products
    • quality control of insectisides and herbicides
    • analysis of alcoholic beverages
    • polymer analysis
    • analysis of oil
    • biochemical and biotechnology research