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E = hv = hc/lambda
- E = energy of light
- v = frequency
- lambda = wavelength
- c = speed of light (constant) (3 x 108)
- h = planks constant (constant)
Atomic emission spectroscopy
flame used to excite metal atoms and the light is passed through a prism to create an emission or line spectrum. an unknown substance can be matched with known metal spectrum.
- Identification of organic compounds. (good for functional groups)
- molecules absorb infrared radiation and bend or stretch.
Double beam infrared spectrometer
- source of infrared light
- wavelength selector (monochromator)
- beam splitter
- sample and reference cell
- to identify isotopes and relative isotopic masses and abundances, this can be used to find relative atomic masses.
- analytical tool for molecules - breaks molecules (fragments them) apart
- used to identify substances in urine and blood
Nuclear magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy
used for structure of organic molecules
Atomic Absorption Spectroscopy
can be used for analysys of polluting metals in waterways and presence of sodium ions in mineral water. (testing everything with metal concentration)
Monochromatic light source needed
used for separating complex mixtures, used to test for the presence of banned substances in urine and forensic testing
Retention factor Rf
Rf = distance moved by component / distance moved by solvent
Visible and UV spectroscopy
used for analysis of hemoglobin in blood and the analysis of nitrates and phosphates in water samples.
A = Elc
- A = Absorbance
- E = molar absorptivity
- l = path length
- c = concentration of solution
1H NMR peaks
- single peak = neighbouring group is hydroxyl
- doublet = neighbouring carbon atom has 1 hydrogen
- Triplet = neighbouring carbon atom has 2 hydrogen
- quartet = neighbouring carbon has 3 hydrogen
Gas - Liquid Chromatography
uses for analysing blood alcohol levels, monitoring pollutants in air, analysing foods, oil spills.
High Pressure Liquid Chromatography
- Testing Pharmaceutical products
- quality control of insectisides and herbicides
- analysis of alcoholic beverages
- polymer analysis
- analysis of oil
- biochemical and biotechnology research