Exam 3 Meds

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Author:
rmw61299
ID:
11516
Filename:
Exam 3 Meds
Updated:
2010-03-21 23:16:18
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Nursing Pharmacology
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Description:
Meds for GI, Substance Abuse, and Fluid & Electrolytes
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  1. Amoxicillin (Amoxil)
    • Beta-lactam(super group)
    • Broad –spectrum Penicillin (group specifically)
    • Antibiotic (therapeutic)
    • GI- but only really effective in triple therapy, not alone.

    Attacks bacterial cell wall, killing it

    Common side effects: Rash and/or anaphylaxis, diarrhea, n/v, superinfections,Edema.

    Nursing Intervention: *make sure not allergic to penicillins or cephalosporins. Don’t use if pt has renal disorder. Lowers effectiveness of birth control. Take with probiotics.
  2. Metronidazole (Flagyl)
    • Used for atypical bacteria.
    • Antibacterial/ antiprotozoal
    • Antibiotic that’s in a class of its own.GI disorders,mainly H.pylori

    Screws with the bacteria’s DNA

    Common side effects: Diarrhea, n/v, headache. If in high doses may cause dark red/brown urine. Rash and/or anaphylaxis.

    Nursing Intervention: *stay away from alcohol for atleast 48 hrs.Take with probiotics to avoid diarrhea and/or yeast infections.
  3. Clarithromycin (Biaxin)
    • Considered broad spectrum Macrolide (specific group)
    • Antibiotic (therapeutic)GI disorder specifically H.pylori, can be used alone or in triple therapy. Drug of choice if pt allergic to penicillins/cephalosporin

    Attacks the ribosomes in bacteria to stop protein formation so bacteria cannot duplicate.

    Common Side Effect: n/v, diarrhea, cramping. Anaphylaxis or rash, superinfection.

    Nursing Implications: *Notify dr. if severe diarrhea, monitor pt if on Coumadin or digoxin for toxicity.
  4. Amphojel-aluminum
    Maalox- alum/mag
    Mylanta-alum/mag w/ simethicone,Gaviscon- mag

    (Amphojel, Maalox, Mylanta, gaviscon)
    Antacids; Used for numerous GI disorders, but DOES NOT coat ulcers!

    Coats the stomach to neutralize HCL and reduce pepsin activity.

    Common Side Effects: Constipation, diarrhea, if contains alum: encephalopathy and/or hypophosphatemia mag: hypermagnesia.Alum and carafate will create alum toxicity.

    Nursing Implications: *give 1 hr before & 2-3 hrs after meals.Not recom. for pt. w/ renal insuff. b/c electrolyte imbalances can occur. Separate within 30 min of carafate! Monitor diarrhea/constipation.
  5. Cimetidine,
    Famotidine,
    Nizatidine,
    Ranitidine

    (Tagamet,
    pepcid,
    axid, zantac)
    • H2 receptor blockers,
    • Anti ulcer
    • Used for many upper GI disorders. Faster acting than PPI- think of it as your rescuer! ALSO-waaaaaay cheaper.

    Blocks the histamine receptors so reduces HCl

    • Common SIde Effects: Headaches, dizziness, constipation, pruritis, malaise
    • Remember that it slows down breakdown of certain meds.

    Nursing Implications: Give before meals, take before antacids and/or carafate. Not recom. Monitor pt. with liver problem, monitor with sedatives, anticoagulants, digoxin, amoxil.
  6. Omeprazole,
    Lansoprazole,
    Rabeprazole,
    Esomeprazole,
    Pantoprazole

    (Prilosec,
    Prevacid,
    Aciphex,
    Nexium,
    Protonix)
    • Proton pump inhibitors. Antiulcers
    • Used for many gi disorders. More for long term, think of it as your maintenance gi med.

    Block the ATPase enzyme system which suppresses gastric secretions.

    • Common Side Effects: Headache, fatigue, thirst, constipation
    • Abd pain, diarrhea,Rash.

    Nursing Implications: Take before meals, antacids, and/or carafate. Monitor pt with liver problem. Monitor with meds like benzos, digoxin,amoxil.

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