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What is the difference between sex and gender?
- Sex is defined in biological terms and is based on physiological and anatomical differnces between males and females
- Gender refers to the attributes, behavior, personality characteristics and expections associated with one's sex in a given culture.
Why is the formation of gender identity an important basis of stratification and categorisation for children?
- In accordance to self categorisation theory, there is an emphasis on all boy and all girls are simliar
- Children assume that their same sex peers have simliar interest, thus forming gender stereotypes and attach new characteristics to gender
- Children also show own sex favourism in behaviors attitudes and prejudices
How does the salience of gender varies?
- The salience of gender varies with context.
- Once the salience of gender has been heightened, people exhibit same same favouritism or gender stereotypes when describing themselves and others.
- Salience of gender can also vary with the person involved, depending on how accessible that categorisation is in the mind of a person, or how readily the person can encode or organise information in a gender based manner. Can be due to past experiences.
- High self esteem individuals show more in group bias than low esteem individuals. According to SIT, in-group favouritism stems from a desire to achieve a positive social identity in order to enhance or maintain self-esteem.
What are ascribed status and acheived status?
- Ascribed status refers to statuses which are assigned at birth and are often impermable and hard to change e.g gender or race.
- Achieve status refers to status which are more permeable and inclusive e.g professional groups and hobby groups. Obtaining acheived status could be dependent on acquision of wealth and property and having the necessary work and professional qualifications.
What is situational identity and what role does it play in our lives?
- Situational identity arises when an individual constructs and presents any one of a number of possible social identities, depending on the situation and whether it is desirable or appropriate.
- Sitational identity is seen a dynamic and people can easily switch between different situational identities.
- A person is able to appraise the situation and decide the desirable outcome and how much he wants to disclose. A positive self presentation is needed and people assess what is appropiate and expected, and select the presentation based on one's personality.
- However, even a seemingly impermable boundary can sometimes be breached. (refer to Nagata study).