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Medication packages that contain a single dose for a single patient.
Rapidly occuring tolerance to a drug. This typically occurs with sympathetic agonists, specifically decongestant and bronchodilation agents.
The chemical or substance on which a drug acts.
A source of digitalis (a glycoside)
A source of atropine (an alkaloid)
Sources of Drug Information
- United State Pharmacopeia (USP)
- Physician's Desk Reference
- Drug Information
- Montly Prescribing Reference
- AMA Drug Evaluation
Components of a Drug Profile
- Mechanism of Action
- Side Effects/Adverse Reactions
- Routes of Administration
- Special Considerations
- How Supplied
Schedules of drugs according to the Controlled Substances Act of 1970
- Schedule I - High abuse potential; no medical uses... Heroin, LSD, Mescaline
- Schedule II - High abuse potential; approved medical use.... Opium, Cocaine, Morphine, Codeine, Oxycodone, Methadone, Secobarbital
- Schedule III - Lower abuse potential; Limited opioid amounts or combined with non-controlled substances. Vicodin, Tylenol with Codeine
- Schedule IV - Less abuse potential - Diazepam, Lorazepam, Phenobarbital
- Schedule V - Less abuse potential - Limited amounts of opioids; for cough and diarrhea
The Pure Food and Drug Act of 1906
Enacted to improve the quality and labeling of drugs, named the United States Pharmacopeia as this country's offical source for drug information.
The most common liquid preparations. Generally water based; some may be oil based.
Prepared using an alcohol extraction process; some alcohol usally remains in the final drug preparation.
Preparations in which the solid doesn't not dissolve in the solvent; if left alone, the solid portion will precipitate out.
Suspensions with an oily substance in the solvent; even when well mixed, globules of oil separate out of the solution.
Solution of a volatile drug in alcohol.
Alcohol and water solvent, often with flavorings added to improve taste.
Sugar, water, and drug solutions.
Drug Storage Considerations
- Shelf Life
Types of Drug Reactions
- Bind to a receptor site
- Change the physical properties of cells
- Chemically combine with other chemicals
- Altering a normal metabolic pathway
The patient becomes accustomed to the drug's presence in the body and will suffer form withdrawal symptoms upon it's absence. The dependence may be physical or psychological.
Increased effectiveness when a drug is given in several doses.
Effects on the body.
The greater the affinity the stronger the....
The effects of one drug alter the response to another drug.
The effects of one drug block the response to another drug.
aka - Additive Effect. 2 drugs that both have the same effect are given together, analogous to 1 + 1=2
In most cases drugs will either...
Stimulate or inhibit the cell's normal biochemical actions. A drug cannot impart a new function to a cell.
Example of a partial agonist
A sufficiently large dose of the agonist can overcome the antagonism.
How a drug is absorbed, distributed, or metabolized.
2 drugs that both have the same effect are given together and produce a response greater than the sum of their individual responses; analogous to 1 + 1=3
One drug enhances the effect of another. A common example is Phenergan enhances the effects of Morphine.
No amount of agonist can overcome it.
Drugs spherically shaped to be easy to swallow.
The direct biochemical interaction between 2 drugs; one drug affects the pharmacology of another drug.
Factors altering drug response
- Body Mass
- Environmental Milieu
- Time of Administration
- Pathological State
- Genetic Factor
- Psychological Factors
Example of an antagonist
Example of an agonist
Onset of Action
The time from administration until a medication reaches its minimum effective concentration.
Amount of a drug that is still active after it reaches its target tissue.
First Pass Effect
The liver's partial or complete inactivation of a drug before it reaches the systemic circulation.
Chemical that participates in complex cascading reactions that eventually cause a drug's desired effects.
Pro-Drug (Parent Drug)
Medication that is not active when administered but whose biotransformation converts it into active metabolites.
- Chemical Name: (7-chloro-1,3-dihydro-1-methyl-5-phenyl-2H-1,4-benzodiazepin-2-one)
- Generic Name: diazepam
- Official Name: diazepam, USP
- Brand Name (aka trade or proprietary name): Valium
Types of drug laws and regulations
- Federal laws
- State laws and regulation
- Individual agency regulations
6 Rights of Medication Administration
- Right medication
- Right dose
- Right time
- Right route
- Right patient
- Right documentation
Special name given to the metabolism of drugs.
A drug's ability to cause the expected response.
Specialized protein that combines with a drug resulting in a biochemical.
Describes the length of onset, duration, and termination of action, as well as the drugs minimum effective concentration and toxic levels.
How a drug interacts with the body to cause it's effects.
Minimum Effective Concentration
Minimum level of drug needed to cause a given effect.
Binding of a drug or hormone to a target cell receptor that causes the number of preceptors to decrease.
Free drug availability
Proportion of a drug available in the body to cause either desired or undesired effects.
Delivery of a medication outside of the gastrointestinal tract, typically using needles to inject medications into the circulatory system or tissues.
Time the body takes to clear one half of a drug.
The breakage of a chemical bond by adding water, or by incorporating a hydroxyl (OH-) group into one fragment and a hydrogen ion (H+) into the other.
Chemical used to diagnose, treat, or prevent disease.
Delivery of a medication through the gastrointestinal tract.
Drug that binds to a receptor and causes it to initiate the expected response.
The loss of hydrogen atoms or the acceptance of an oxygen atom. This increases the positive charge (or lessens the negative charge).
Drug that binds to a receptor but does not cause it to initiate the expected response.
Medication that may deform or kill the fetus.
Gelatin containers filled with powders or tiny pills, the gelatin dissolves, releasing the drug into the GI tract.
Test that determines the amount and purity of a given chemical in a preparation in the laboratory.
Biochemical barrier at the maternal/fetal interface that restricts certain molecules.
The body's breaking down chemicals into different chemicals.
Test to ascertain a drug's availability in a biological model.
Relative therapeutic effectiveness of chemically equivalent drugs.
Movement of a solvent in a solution from an area of lower solute concentration to an area of higher solute concentration.
Blood brain barrier
Tight junctions of the capillary endothelial cells in the CNS vasculature through which only non-protein bound, highly lipid-soluble drugs can pass.
Not as popular as the once were, some are still in use. (granulated)
Powders compressed into a disklike form.
Drugs mixed with waxlike base that melts at body temperature allowing absorption by rectal or vaginal tissue.
Forms of Parenteral Routes
- IV - Intravenous
- ET - Endotracheal
- IO - Intraosseous
- IM - Intramuscular
- SQ - Subcutaneous
Forms of Enteral Routes
- PO - Oral
- OG/NG - Orogastric/Nasogastric
- SL - Sublingual
- Buccal (between cheek and gum)
- PR - Rectal
A drug causes the formation of more receptors than normal.
The study of drugs and their interactions with the body.
The binding of a an antagonist causes a deformity of the binding site that prevents an agonist from fitting and binding.
One drug binds to a receptor and causes the expected effect while also blocking another drug from triggering the same receptor.
To become electronically charged or polar.
A competitive antagonist permanently binds with a receptor site.
Unintended response to a drug.
Drug response relationship
Correlation of different amounts of a drug to clinical response.
Agonist-antagonist (partial agonist)
Drug that binds to a receptor and stimulates some of its effects but blocks others.
Force of attractions between a drug and a receptor.
Termination of action
Time from when the drug's level drops below its minimum effective concentration until its eliminated from the body.
Duration of action
Length of time the amount of drug remains above its minimum effective concentration.
Ratio of a drug's lethal dose for 50 percent of the population to effective dose for 50 percent of the population.
Movement of a solute in a solution from an area of higher concentration to an area of lower concentration.
Movement of molecules across a membrane from an area of higher pressure to an area of lower pressure.
Drug catergories harmful to a fetus
Require the use of energy to move a substance.
Mediated diffusion or facilitated diffusion - process in which carrier proteins transport large molecules across the cell membrane.
Movement of a substance without the use of energy.
aka Hypersensitivity. This effect occurs as the drug is antigenic and activates the immune system, causing effects that are normally more profound than seen in the general population.
A drug effect that is unique to the individual; different than seen or expected in the population in general.
Decreased response to the same amount of a drug after repeated administrations.
Tolerance for a drug that develops after adminstration of a different drug. Morphine and other opioid agents are common examples. Tolerance for 1 agent implies tolerance for others as well.