Pharmacology

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emtaglover
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115251
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Pharmacology
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2011-11-07 23:29:43
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Paramedic
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Part 1: Basic Pharmacology
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  1. Dose packaging
    Medication packages that contain a single dose for a single patient.
  2. Tachyphylaxis
    Rapidly occuring tolerance to a drug. This typically occurs with sympathetic agonists, specifically decongestant and bronchodilation agents.
  3. Substrates
    The chemical or substance on which a drug acts.
  4. Purple Foxglove
    A source of digitalis (a glycoside)
  5. Deadly Nightshade
    A source of atropine (an alkaloid)
  6. Sources of Drug Information
    • United State Pharmacopeia (USP)
    • Physician's Desk Reference
    • Drug Information
    • Montly Prescribing Reference
    • AMA Drug Evaluation
  7. Components of a Drug Profile
    • Names
    • Classification
    • Mechanism of Action
    • Indications
    • Pharmacokinetics
    • Side Effects/Adverse Reactions
    • Routes of Administration
    • Contraindications
    • Dosage
    • Special Considerations
    • How Supplied
  8. Schedules of drugs according to the Controlled Substances Act of 1970
    • Schedule I - High abuse potential; no medical uses... Heroin, LSD, Mescaline
    • Schedule II - High abuse potential; approved medical use.... Opium, Cocaine, Morphine, Codeine, Oxycodone, Methadone, Secobarbital
    • Schedule III - Lower abuse potential; Limited opioid amounts or combined with non-controlled substances. Vicodin, Tylenol with Codeine
    • Schedule IV - Less abuse potential - Diazepam, Lorazepam, Phenobarbital
    • Schedule V - Less abuse potential - Limited amounts of opioids; for cough and diarrhea
  9. The Pure Food and Drug Act of 1906
    Enacted to improve the quality and labeling of drugs, named the United States Pharmacopeia as this country's offical source for drug information.
  10. Solutions
    The most common liquid preparations. Generally water based; some may be oil based.
  11. Tinctures
    Prepared using an alcohol extraction process; some alcohol usally remains in the final drug preparation.
  12. Suspensions
    Preparations in which the solid doesn't not dissolve in the solvent; if left alone, the solid portion will precipitate out.
  13. Emulsions
    Suspensions with an oily substance in the solvent; even when well mixed, globules of oil separate out of the solution.
  14. Spirits
    Solution of a volatile drug in alcohol.
  15. Elixirs
    Alcohol and water solvent, often with flavorings added to improve taste.
  16. Syrups
    Sugar, water, and drug solutions.
  17. Gaseous Drug Forms
    • Oxygen
    • Nitrous Oxide
  18. Drug Storage Considerations
    • Temperature
    • Light
    • Moisture
    • Shelf Life
  19. Types of Drug Reactions
    • Bind to a receptor site
    • Change the physical properties of cells
    • Chemically combine with other chemicals
    • Altering a normal metabolic pathway
  20. Drug Dependence
    The patient becomes accustomed to the drug's presence in the body and will suffer form withdrawal symptoms upon it's absence. The dependence may be physical or psychological.
  21. Cumulative Effect
    Increased effectiveness when a drug is given in several doses.
  22. Pharmacodynamics
    Effects on the body.
  23. The greater the affinity the stronger the....
    Bond
  24. Drug Interaction
    The effects of one drug alter the response to another drug.
  25. Drug Antagonism
    The effects of one drug block the response to another drug.
  26. Summation
    aka - Additive Effect. 2 drugs that both have the same effect are given together, analogous to 1 + 1=2
  27. In most cases drugs will either...
    Stimulate or inhibit the cell's normal biochemical actions. A drug cannot impart a new function to a cell.
  28. Example of a partial agonist
    Nubain
  29. Surmountable
    A sufficiently large dose of the agonist can overcome the antagonism.
  30. Pharmacokinetics
    How a drug is absorbed, distributed, or metabolized.
  31. Synergism
    2 drugs that both have the same effect are given together and produce a response greater than the sum of their individual responses; analogous to 1 + 1=3
  32. Potentiation
    One drug enhances the effect of another. A common example is Phenergan enhances the effects of Morphine.
  33. Insurmountable
    No amount of agonist can overcome it.
  34. Pills
    Drugs spherically shaped to be easy to swallow.
  35. Interference
    The direct biochemical interaction between 2 drugs; one drug affects the pharmacology of another drug.
  36. Factors altering drug response
    • Age
    • Body Mass
    • Sex
    • Environmental Milieu
    • Time of Administration
    • Pathological State
    • Genetic Factor
    • Psychological Factors
  37. Example of an antagonist
    Narcan
  38. Example of an agonist
    Morphine
  39. Onset of Action
    The time from administration until a medication reaches its minimum effective concentration.
  40. Bioavailability
    Amount of a drug that is still active after it reaches its target tissue.
  41. First Pass Effect
    The liver's partial or complete inactivation of a drug before it reaches the systemic circulation.
  42. Second Messenger
    Chemical that participates in complex cascading reactions that eventually cause a drug's desired effects.
  43. Pro-Drug (Parent Drug)
    Medication that is not active when administered but whose biotransformation converts it into active metabolites.
  44. Drug Names
    • Chemical Name: (7-chloro-1,3-dihydro-1-methyl-5-phenyl-2H-1,4-benzodiazepin-2-one)
    • Generic Name: diazepam
    • Official Name: diazepam, USP
    • Brand Name (aka trade or proprietary name): Valium
  45. Types of drug laws and regulations
    • Federal laws
    • State laws and regulation
    • Individual agency regulations
  46. 6 Rights of Medication Administration
    • Right medication
    • Right dose
    • Right time
    • Right route
    • Right patient
    • Right documentation
  47. Biotransformation
    Special name given to the metabolism of drugs.
  48. Efficacy
    A drug's ability to cause the expected response.
  49. Receptor
    Specialized protein that combines with a drug resulting in a biochemical.
  50. Plasma-Level Profile
    Describes the length of onset, duration, and termination of action, as well as the drugs minimum effective concentration and toxic levels.
  51. Pharmacodynamics
    How a drug interacts with the body to cause it's effects.
  52. Minimum Effective Concentration
    Minimum level of drug needed to cause a given effect.
  53. Down regulation
    Binding of a drug or hormone to a target cell receptor that causes the number of preceptors to decrease.
  54. Free drug availability
    Proportion of a drug available in the body to cause either desired or undesired effects.
  55. Parenteral route
    Delivery of a medication outside of the gastrointestinal tract, typically using needles to inject medications into the circulatory system or tissues.
  56. Biologic half-life
    Time the body takes to clear one half of a drug.
  57. Hydrolysis
    The breakage of a chemical bond by adding water, or by incorporating a hydroxyl (OH-) group into one fragment and a hydrogen ion (H+) into the other.
  58. Drug
    Chemical used to diagnose, treat, or prevent disease.
  59. Enteral route
    Delivery of a medication through the gastrointestinal tract.
  60. Agonist
    Drug that binds to a receptor and causes it to initiate the expected response.
  61. Oxidation
    The loss of hydrogen atoms or the acceptance of an oxygen atom. This increases the positive charge (or lessens the negative charge).
  62. Antagonist
    Drug that binds to a receptor but does not cause it to initiate the expected response.
  63. Teratogenic drug
    Medication that may deform or kill the fetus.
  64. Capsules
    Gelatin containers filled with powders or tiny pills, the gelatin dissolves, releasing the drug into the GI tract.
  65. Assay
    Test that determines the amount and purity of a given chemical in a preparation in the laboratory.
  66. Placental barrier
    Biochemical barrier at the maternal/fetal interface that restricts certain molecules.
  67. Metabolism
    The body's breaking down chemicals into different chemicals.
  68. Bioassay
    Test to ascertain a drug's availability in a biological model.
  69. Bioequivalence
    Relative therapeutic effectiveness of chemically equivalent drugs.
  70. Osmosis
    Movement of a solvent in a solution from an area of lower solute concentration to an area of higher solute concentration.
  71. Blood brain barrier
    Tight junctions of the capillary endothelial cells in the CNS vasculature through which only non-protein bound, highly lipid-soluble drugs can pass.
  72. Powders
    Not as popular as the once were, some are still in use. (granulated)
  73. Tablets
    Powders compressed into a disklike form.
  74. Suppositories
    Drugs mixed with waxlike base that melts at body temperature allowing absorption by rectal or vaginal tissue.
  75. Forms of Parenteral Routes
    • IV - Intravenous
    • ET - Endotracheal
    • IO - Intraosseous
    • Umbilical
    • IM - Intramuscular
    • SQ - Subcutaneous
    • Inhalation/Nebulized
    • Topical
    • Transdermal
    • Intradermal
    • Nasal
    • Instillation
  76. Forms of Enteral Routes
    • PO - Oral
    • OG/NG - Orogastric/Nasogastric
    • SL - Sublingual
    • Buccal (between cheek and gum)
    • PR - Rectal
  77. Up regulation
    A drug causes the formation of more receptors than normal.
  78. Pharmacology
    The study of drugs and their interactions with the body.
  79. Non-competitive antagonism
    The binding of a an antagonist causes a deformity of the binding site that prevents an agonist from fitting and binding.
  80. Competitive antagonism
    One drug binds to a receptor and causes the expected effect while also blocking another drug from triggering the same receptor.
  81. Ionize
    To become electronically charged or polar.
  82. Irreversible antagonism
    A competitive antagonist permanently binds with a receptor site.
  83. Side effect
    Unintended response to a drug.
  84. Drug response relationship
    Correlation of different amounts of a drug to clinical response.
  85. Agonist-antagonist (partial agonist)
    Drug that binds to a receptor and stimulates some of its effects but blocks others.
  86. Affinity
    Force of attractions between a drug and a receptor.
  87. Termination of action
    Time from when the drug's level drops below its minimum effective concentration until its eliminated from the body.
  88. Duration of action
    Length of time the amount of drug remains above its minimum effective concentration.
  89. Therapeutic Index
    Ratio of a drug's lethal dose for 50 percent of the population to effective dose for 50 percent of the population.
  90. Diffusion
    Movement of a solute in a solution from an area of higher concentration to an area of lower concentration.
  91. Filtration
    Movement of molecules across a membrane from an area of higher pressure to an area of lower pressure.
  92. Drug catergories harmful to a fetus
    • Category D
    • Category X
  93. Active transport
    Require the use of energy to move a substance.
  94. Carrier
    Mediated diffusion or facilitated diffusion - process in which carrier proteins transport large molecules across the cell membrane.
  95. Passive transport
    Movement of a substance without the use of energy.
  96. Allergic reaction
    aka Hypersensitivity. This effect occurs as the drug is antigenic and activates the immune system, causing effects that are normally more profound than seen in the general population.
  97. Idiosyncrasy
    A drug effect that is unique to the individual; different than seen or expected in the population in general.
  98. Tolerance
    Decreased response to the same amount of a drug after repeated administrations.
  99. Cross-tolerance
    Tolerance for a drug that develops after adminstration of a different drug. Morphine and other opioid agents are common examples. Tolerance for 1 agent implies tolerance for others as well.

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