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2011-11-07 20:58:31

microbial diversity exam 3
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  1. what are the three major groups of low GC gram posistive bacteria? high gc gram posi bacteria?
    Lactic acid, endospore producing, mycoplasmas. Coryneform, mycobacteria, and actinomycetes.
  2. what endospore producing bacteria causes botulism and tetanus?
  3. low GC gram positive bacteria that lacks cell walls
  4. smallest bacteria capable of autonomous growth
  5. one of the largest and most important phyla of bacteria?
  6. cyanobacteria is sister to what bacteria?
    gram positive bacteria
  7. T/F Cyanobacteria use flagella for movement
    False they glide bc they lack flagella
  8. what were the first oxygen producing phototophs on earth creating earth's oxic atmosphere?
  9. what distinctive photosynthetic pigments are used in true cyanobacteria?
    phycobilins and chlorophyll a
  10. what are the 5 morphological forms of true cyanobacteria?
    unicell with binary fission, unicell with colonial, filamentaous with binary fission, filamentous with heterocysts, and filamentous with branches
  11. what is the sole site of N fixation filamentous bacteria?
  12. explain tri-partite lichens.
    the symbiosis of fungus algae and cyanobacteria
  13. explain cyanolichens
    the symbioses of fungus and true cyanobacterium only (rare)
  14. explain azollas.
    symbiotic relationship of fern and cyanobacteria
  15. what are harmful algal blooms. explain
    when there is a high amount of cyanobacteria that produce toxins
  16. photosynthetic organisms living beneath rocks in harsh enviornments
  17. T/F up to 95% of quartz rock in desert can support hypoliths
    true. they are translucent so it helps
  18. what is the pigment used by prochlorophytes that is also used by true cyanobacteria
    chlorophyll a
  19. what genus produces anti cancer metabolite in sea squirts? and group does it belong?
    prochloron. prochlorophytes in the cyanobacteria
  20. T/F prochlorococcus is about as common as SARS11
  21. T/F True Cyanobacteria are the ancestors of chloroplasts
    No. they had clorophyll a and b and no phycobilins. so this more closely matched the prochlorophytes so they beleived that insead the prochlorophytes are the ancestor
  22. Which stage of the chlamydia is infectious? non infectious?
    elementary bodies, reticulate bodies
  23. chlamydia are gram negative or gram positive
    gram negative
  24. explain the four stages of infection of chlamydias
    EB infects cell, EB transforms to RB, RB mutliplies, RB transform to EB cell lysis and starts all over again
  25. T/F chlamydia can be transfered to offspring
  26. what is interesting about the planctomyces.
    it has compartmentalization in cells even tho it is prokaryotic
  27. which of the the unclassified seven phyla is responsible for fermenting sugar
  28. phylum of cellulose digesters and pathogens that is also the primary source of wood decay
  29. endosymbiont of insects and some opportunic pathogens
  30. the type of bacteria used in winogradsky columns
    green sulfur bacteria
  31. green sulfur bacteria make a consortia with _______
    chemoorganotrophic bacteria
  32. what is interesting about he flagella of the spirochetes.
    its endoflagellum
  33. which spirochete is the cause of lyme disease? which is the cause of syphilis?
    borrelia, treponema
  34. what is the infecting agent of lyme disease
  35. T/F the spirochetes and the seven unclassified phylum are sisters
    false they branch at the same time so its hard to say
  36. this phylum is polyextremeophile and has powerful DNA repair machinery
  37. what is the "world's toughest bacterium"
  38. the source of taq polymerase
  39. green nonsulfur bacteria are _________ phototrophs
  40. sister to the rest of bacteria
  41. what method of viewing bacteria allows one to see focused beam of electrons that illuminate sample surface?
    SEM (scanning electron microscopy)
  42. name 3 Microsopic techniques to viewing cells and explain
    • 1. SEM- focused beam of electrons illuminates sample surface
    • 2. TEM- Transmission election microscopy, electrons pass through this section staind structures absored the beam and appear dark
    • 3. Laser Confocal- 3D images used in staining methods
  43. Name the ways to detect microbial diversityo and name the advantages and disadvantages
    • 1. DAPI- stains all cells a bright blue color.stains nucleic acids, used to quanitify. cant tell organisms apart and cant tell live from dead.
    • 2. viability staining- differentiates between live and dead. useful for quantifying and determining viability. disadvantage is that there is lots of background staining
    • 3. GFP- not a stain, bacteria are transfomred when they introduced into genome. cant be used in untransformed communities.
    • or
    • 4. Fluorescent antibodies- diagnoses specific strains. have to make specific antibodies and that is expensive and time consuming
    • or
    • 5. Enrichment culture technique- selective medium and selective culturing conditions that allow obtaining of lab cutlures of microbes from natural samples using selective culturing methods.
    • 6. FISH- uses nucleic acid probe complimentary to sequence
  44. What are 4 ways of purifying the enriched cultures used for the enriched cultures technique.
    • 1. Agar streaks,
    • 2. Serial dilution- cont. to dilute until no growth observed
    • 3. agar shake method- dilution or mix cuture into molten agar
    • 4. laser tweezers- using laser to manipulate cells
  45. what is Horizontal gene transfer? how does it happen?
    when non maternal movement of genetic material between 2 organisms. 1. natural transformation. 2. artificial transfromation making cell competent by lab 3. conjucation (plasmid transfered DNA from one cell to another) 4. transduction (move DNA from one cell to another via virus)
  46. What does doolittle discuss?
    he talks about whether or not there is actually a tree of life based on all the horizontal gene transfer.
  47. carlous linnaeus create...
    binomial system of nomenclature for naming organisms
  48. who proposed the Biological species concept
    Ernst Mayr.
  49. what is the biological species concept
    a group of orangisms that can interbreed to produce fertile offspring.
  50. T/F microbiologists rely on the phenotype to determine taxonomy
  51. what type of taxonomy is used more
    molecular taxonomy
  52. what are the 5 steps of DNA:DNA hybridization?
    • 1. DNA extraction
    • 2. Denaturation
    • 3. Renaturation
    • 4. Removal of non coding DNA
    • 5. Hybridization
  53. Explain the FAME analysis
    lipid analysis to determine how many lipids and fatty acid chains in the membrane
  54. name the 4 methods of ecological monitoring and describe.
    • Direct chemical measurments- simple. fast and quantitative. not precise cant follow fate of organisms.
    • radioactive isotopes- allows traking of organims
    • microelectrodes- used to study ecological straficication in microbial mats
    • stable isotopes- isotopes that dont break down are observed.
  55. when isotopes divide up and strafify based on lighter and heavier carbons
    isotope fractionation
  56. method used to amplify DNA sequence and seperate the DNA of a culture that has lots of DNA
  57. what are the three steps to seperating the DNA in a PCR
    • 1. selective primers.
    • 2. Cloning
    • 3. DGGE (electrophoresis)
  58. microcolonies of cells are called
  59. disease caused by biofilm in 1976
    legionnaire's caused by legionella
  60. name 3 biofilms
    plaque on teeth, slime in kitchen drain, stuff on contacts
  61. T/F Eukarya diverged from prokaryotes
  62. T/F not all eukaryotes have mitochondria
  63. eukaryotes that do not have mitochondria have....
    hyrogenosomes. they are the site of ATP production and produce H2
  64. T/F some eukaryotic cells have chloroplasts
  65. A protist has 3 ways of movement name them
    flagella, cilia and ameboa movement
  66. what protists are characterized by haveing doubled cells
  67. live in the hindgut of many termites and cockroaches to help digest cellulose
  68. euglenids have interesting cell surface called
    pellicle. which is a series of ridges