what are the three major groups of low GC gram posistive bacteria? high gc gram posi bacteria?
Lactic acid, endospore producing, mycoplasmas. Coryneform, mycobacteria, and actinomycetes.
what endospore producing bacteria causes botulism and tetanus?
low GC gram positive bacteria that lacks cell walls
smallest bacteria capable of autonomous growth
one of the largest and most important phyla of bacteria?
cyanobacteria is sister to what bacteria?
gram positive bacteria
T/F Cyanobacteria use flagella for movement
False they glide bc they lack flagella
what were the first oxygen producing phototophs on earth creating earth's oxic atmosphere?
what distinctive photosynthetic pigments are used in true cyanobacteria?
phycobilins and chlorophyll a
what are the 5 morphological forms of true cyanobacteria?
unicell with binary fission, unicell with colonial, filamentaous with binary fission, filamentous with heterocysts, and filamentous with branches
what is the sole site of N fixation filamentous bacteria?
explain tri-partite lichens.
the symbiosis of fungus algae and cyanobacteria
the symbioses of fungus and true cyanobacterium only (rare)
symbiotic relationship of fern and cyanobacteria
what are harmful algal blooms. explain
when there is a high amount of cyanobacteria that produce toxins
photosynthetic organisms living beneath rocks in harsh enviornments
T/F up to 95% of quartz rock in desert can support hypoliths
true. they are translucent so it helps
what is the pigment used by prochlorophytes that is also used by true cyanobacteria
what genus produces anti cancer metabolite in sea squirts? and group does it belong?
prochloron. prochlorophytes in the cyanobacteria
T/F prochlorococcus is about as common as SARS11
T/F True Cyanobacteria are the ancestors of chloroplasts
No. they had clorophyll a and b and no phycobilins. so this more closely matched the prochlorophytes so they beleived that insead the prochlorophytes are the ancestor
Which stage of the chlamydia is infectious? non infectious?
elementary bodies, reticulate bodies
chlamydia are gram negative or gram positive
explain the four stages of infection of chlamydias
EB infects cell, EB transforms to RB, RB mutliplies, RB transform to EB cell lysis and starts all over again
T/F chlamydia can be transfered to offspring
what is interesting about the planctomyces.
it has compartmentalization in cells even tho it is prokaryotic
which of the the unclassified seven phyla is responsible for fermenting sugar
phylum of cellulose digesters and pathogens that is also the primary source of wood decay
endosymbiont of insects and some opportunic pathogens
the type of bacteria used in winogradsky columns
green sulfur bacteria
green sulfur bacteria make a consortia with _______
what is interesting about he flagella of the spirochetes.
which spirochete is the cause of lyme disease? which is the cause of syphilis?
what is the infecting agent of lyme disease
T/F the spirochetes and the seven unclassified phylum are sisters
false they branch at the same time so its hard to say
this phylum is polyextremeophile and has powerful DNA repair machinery
what is the "world's toughest bacterium"
the source of taq polymerase
green nonsulfur bacteria are _________ phototrophs
sister to the rest of bacteria
what method of viewing bacteria allows one to see focused beam of electrons that illuminate sample surface?
SEM (scanning electron microscopy)
name 3 Microsopic techniques to viewing cells and explain
1. SEM- focused beam of electrons illuminates sample surface
2. TEM- Transmission election microscopy, electrons pass through this section staind structures absored the beam and appear dark
3. Laser Confocal- 3D images used in staining methods
Name the ways to detect microbial diversityo and name the advantages and disadvantages
1. DAPI- stains all cells a bright blue color.stains nucleic acids, used to quanitify. cant tell organisms apart and cant tell live from dead.
2. viability staining- differentiates between live and dead. useful for quantifying and determining viability. disadvantage is that there is lots of background staining
3. GFP- not a stain, bacteria are transfomred when they introduced into genome. cant be used in untransformed communities.
4. Fluorescent antibodies- diagnoses specific strains. have to make specific antibodies and that is expensive and time consuming
5. Enrichment culture technique- selective medium and selective culturing conditions that allow obtaining of lab cutlures of microbes from natural samples using selective culturing methods.
6. FISH- uses nucleic acid probe complimentary to sequence
What are 4 ways of purifying the enriched cultures used for the enriched cultures technique.
1. Agar streaks,
2. Serial dilution- cont. to dilute until no growth observed
3. agar shake method- dilution or mix cuture into molten agar
4. laser tweezers- using laser to manipulate cells
what is Horizontal gene transfer? how does it happen?
when non maternal movement of genetic material between 2 organisms. 1. natural transformation. 2. artificial transfromation making cell competent by lab 3. conjucation (plasmid transfered DNA from one cell to another) 4. transduction (move DNA from one cell to another via virus)
What does doolittle discuss?
he talks about whether or not there is actually a tree of life based on all the horizontal gene transfer.
carlous linnaeus create...
binomial system of nomenclature for naming organisms
who proposed the Biological species concept
what is the biological species concept
a group of orangisms that can interbreed to produce fertile offspring.
T/F microbiologists rely on the phenotype to determine taxonomy
what type of taxonomy is used more
what are the 5 steps of DNA:DNA hybridization?
1. DNA extraction
4. Removal of non coding DNA
Explain the FAME analysis
lipid analysis to determine how many lipids and fatty acid chains in the membrane
name the 4 methods of ecological monitoring and describe.
Direct chemical measurments- simple. fast and quantitative. not precise cant follow fate of organisms.
radioactive isotopes- allows traking of organims
microelectrodes- used to study ecological straficication in microbial mats
stable isotopes- isotopes that dont break down are observed.
when isotopes divide up and strafify based on lighter and heavier carbons
method used to amplify DNA sequence and seperate the DNA of a culture that has lots of DNA
what are the three steps to seperating the DNA in a PCR
1. selective primers.
3. DGGE (electrophoresis)
microcolonies of cells are called
disease caused by biofilm in 1976
legionnaire's caused by legionella
name 3 biofilms
plaque on teeth, slime in kitchen drain, stuff on contacts
T/F Eukarya diverged from prokaryotes
T/F not all eukaryotes have mitochondria
eukaryotes that do not have mitochondria have....
hyrogenosomes. they are the site of ATP production and produce H2
T/F some eukaryotic cells have chloroplasts
A protist has 3 ways of movement name them
flagella, cilia and ameboa movement
what protists are characterized by haveing doubled cells
live in the hindgut of many termites and cockroaches to help digest cellulose