Orientation.txt

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Orientation.txt
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  1. at every emergency scene firefighters perform specific dutis assigned bya a__1______. They pump into high pressured____2___, connect__3____ lines to hydrants and position ______4___ to enable them to deliver water to a fire.
    • 1 superior officer
    • 2 hoses
    • 3 hose
    • 4 ladders
  2. Their duties may change __1____ times while the company is in action.
    1 several
  3. Most calls firefighters go to are now _____1_____, about__2____ of all firedepartments provide ambulance services
    • 1 medical
    • 2 half
  4. Firefighters assigned to __1__ _____ units clean up oil spills.
    1 haz mat
  5. ______1____ firefighting equipment and tactics are used on urban and suburban areas, aiports and industry. These tactics dont apply to ___2___ fires and major __3__ _____ incidents.
    • 1 conventional
    • 2 forest
    • 3 Haz mat
  6. In national parks and forest, _____ ___1__ ________ and ____2___ _________ spot fires from watchtowers and report there findings by phone or radio to head quarters.
    • 1 forest fire inspectors
    • 2 prevention specialist
  7. ____1___ ________ patrol to ensure travelers and campers comply with fire regulations.
    1 forest rangers
  8. One of the most effective ways to fight a forest fire is to create a ___1__ ______ by cutting down trees and digging out grass and all other combustible vegetation, creating this bare land in the path of a fire ___2___ __ __ ____.
    • 1 fire line
    • 2 deprives it of fuel
  9. Elite firefighters, called ___1__ _______ parachute from planes to reach inaccessible areas. They have no escape if the winds shift making this very ____2______.
    • 1 smoke jumpers
    • 2 hazardous
  10. Firefighters spend much of there time at the ____1____.
    1 station
  11. Many firefighters work __1_ hours a week or longer
    1. 50
  12. Some places do __1_ on, __2_ off, and receive an extra __3__ off at intervels
    • 1 24
    • 2 48
    • 3 day
  13. Some work a day shift of __1__ hours for __2__ or __3__ days, a night shift of __4__ hours for __5__ or __6__ nights, have __7__ or __8__ off then repeat the cycle
    • 1. 10
    • 2. 3
    • 3. 4
    • 4. 14
    • 5. 3
    • 6. 4
    • 7. 3
    • 8. 4
  14. Duty hours include when firefighters ___1____, ____2____, and perfom ____3___ prevention duties.
    • 1. Study
    • 2. Train
    • 3. Fire
  15. __1__% of firefighters are volunteer.
    1. 70
  16. Paid firefighters held __1__,____ jobs in 2002.
    1. 282,000
  17. First line supervisors/managers of firefighting and prevention held __1_,____ jobs.
    1. 63,000
  18. Fire inspectors held __1_,____ jobs
    1. 14,000
  19. __1__ out of __2__ workers were imployed by municipal or county departments
    • 1. 9
    • 2. 10
  20. Private firefighting companies usually have a ___1___ number of members and usualy work on a subscription basis.
    1. Small
  21. _____1____ firefighters fall under federal and state installations.
    1. Airport
  22. Public safety organization combines firefighting with ____1____, ___2___ ,and __3__ into a single organization.
    • 1. Prevention
    • 2. Safety
    • 3. Ems
  23. Some local and regional departments are being consolidated into county wide departments to reduce ____1__ ______ and __2___ cost, and to establish consistant ____3___ standards and work ____4____.
    • 1. Administration staff
    • 2. Cut
    • 3. Training
    • 4. Procedures.
  24. _____1____ screening is included as employment and can be random even after you are hired.
    1. Drug
  25. Generally must be over___1___.
    1. 18
  26. ____1__ ________ courses may improve your chance of employment, post secondary education for aplicants is ______2____.
    • 1. Fire science
    • 2. Increasing
  27. Large departments train members for____1_____ weeks
    1. Several
  28. A number of departments have an accredited apprentice program lasting for up to__5__ years, these combine formal and technical education with on the job training supervised by experienced firefighters
    1. 5
  29. National fire academy courses include the following: __1__ _______, ___2___ ______ ______, ____3___ ______, ___4__ ____ ______, and ___5__ ______ ______ and ________
    • 1. Executive developement
    • 2. Anti arson techniques
    • 3. Disaster preparedness
    • 4. Haz mat control
    • 5. Public fire safety and education
  30. Promotion rank is usually ____1____, ____2____, ___3_____, ___4____ _______, ____5___ _______, ___6____ _______ and ___7_____
    • 1. Engineer
    • 2. Luetentant
    • 3. Captain
    • 4. Battalion cheif
    • 5. Assistant cheif
    • 6. Deputy cheif
    • 7. Cheif
  31. Many places require a ____1____ ________ in fire science, public administration or a related field to move the batallion cheif level
    1. Bachelors degree
  32. A ____1___ ________ is needed to get into the executive fire officer program at the NFA and for state cheif officercertification
    1. Masters degree
  33. Layoffs are ____1______, even when budget cuts occur, local fire departments usualy cut expenses through ___2__ hiring new members or delaying purchasing ____3______, instea of staff reductions
    • 1. Uncommon
    • 2. Not
    • 1. Equipment
  34. In 2002 median earnings were _1__.___ an hr.
    The middle 50% earned between _2__.___$ and _3__.___$.
    The lowest 10% earned less than _4__.___$ an hr.
    The highest 10% earned more then _5__.___ an a n hr.
    • 1. 17.42
    • 2. 12.53
    • 3. 22.96
    • 4. 8.51
    • 5. 28.22
  35. Local goverment median hourly earnings= _1__.___$
    Federal goverment median hourly earnings= _2__.___$
    State goverment median hourly earnings= _3__.___$
    • 1. 17.92$
    • 2. 15.96$
    • 3. 13.58$
  36. Median annual earnings for first line supervisors/managers of firefighters ann prevention workers in 2002 was _1__,_____$
    The middle 50% earned between _2__,_____$ and _3__,_____$.
    The lowest 10% earned less then _4__,_____$.
    The highest 10% earned more then _5__,_____$.
    • 1. 55,450$
    • 2. 43,920$
    • 3. 68,480$
    • 4. 34,190$
    • 5. 84,730$
  37. First line supervisors in local goverment in 2002 earned _1__,_____$
    1. 56,390$
  38. Fire inspectors median annual salary in 2002 was _1__,_____$.
    The middle 50% earned between _2__,_____$ and _3__,_____$ per year.
    The lowest 10% eraned less than _4__,_____$ a year.
    The highest 10% earned more than _5__,_____$ a year.
    Inspectors and investigations employed in local goverment earned about _6__,_____$ a year.
    • 1. 44,250$
    • 2. 33,880$
    • 3. 56,100$
    • 4. 26,350$
    • 5. 69,060$
    • 6. 46,820$
  39. Minimum to maximum anual salary
    Fire cheif _1__,_____$ to ___,_____$
    Deputy cheif _2__,_____$ to ___,_____$
    Assistant cheif _3__,_____$ to ___,_____$
    Battalion cheif _4__,_____$ to ___,_____$
    • 1. 64,134 to 82,225
    • 2. 56,522 to 72,152
    • 3. 55,645 to 69,036
    • 4. 54,935 to 68,673
  40. minimum to maximum annual salary
    Captain _1__,_____$ to ___,_____$
    Lieutentant _2__,_____$ to ___,_____$
    Fire prevention/inspector _3__,_____$ to ___,_____$
    Engineer _4__,_____$ to ___,_____$
    • 1. 45,383$ to 54,463$
    • 2. 41,800$ to 49,404$
    • 3. 40,387$ to 51,531$
    • 4. 38,656$ to 48,678$
  41. OT is paid if you work more then a set number of hours, the hours threshold is determined by the department during the firefighters work leriod, ranging from _1___ to _2___ days. OT can be paid to keep minimum staffing levels or for special emergencies.
    • 1. 7
    • 2. 28
  42. Benifits- ___1______ and ____2_____ insurance.
    ____3____, __4____ leave and some paid ___5______. PPE (helmet, coat, boots,scba) and dress uniforms.
    • 1. Medical
    • 2. Liability
    • 3. Vacation
    • 4. Sick
    • 5. Holidays
  43. Pensions-retirement at half pay after __1___ years of service or disabled in the line of duty.
    1. 25
  44. Cardiovascular disease (cvd)- leading cause of ___1____ in the US, __2__ ________ deaths a year
    • 1. Deaths
    • 2. One million
  45. USFA wants to reduce firefighter deaths by __1__% by 2005.
    1. 25%
  46. Coronary heart disease (CHD) or coronary artery disease (CAD) describe specific forms of CVD in wich the ___1___ vessels supplying the heart muscle are ___2_____.
    • 1. Blood
    • 2. Blocked
  47. Artery
    A tubular vessel that carries oxygenated blood from the heart through the body
  48. Ischemia
    Lack of BLOOD TO THe heart tissue below a blockage, caused by an onbstruction in an coronary vessel
  49. Myocardial infraction(heart attack)
    Death of heart muscle tissue due to a severe lack of blood. If this occurs the person will have a portion of heart tissue destroyed.
  50. If the area supplied by the blood vessel is very ___1____, the person may recover and may not even know they suffered a heart attack, if the area below the occlusion is to ____2___ the heart cant pump and death occurs.
    • 1. Small
    • 2. Great
  51. Atherosclerosis
    Plaque builds up in the arterial wall causing the blood vessel to narrow, it is a long term disease and build up may begin early in life, people in their early 20s in developed countries of the western world show signs of build up. Symptons are delayed until middle or older age.
  52. CVD can reach advanced stages without overt symptoms, many times the first sign is a ___1___ _____ ______.
    1. Fatal heart attack
  53. Firefighters should address this possibility even if they have __1___ symptoms.
    1. No
  54. A ______ ______ ________ is a characteristic that is present early in life and is associated with an increased risk of future disease
    1. Health risk factor
  55. Risk factors that cannot be modified are ___1__, ___2____, __3____, ___4_____.
    • 1. Age
    • 2. Heredity
    • 3. Race
    • 4. Gender
  56. Risk factors that can be modified ____1_____-_______ _________, ____2____ ________, ____3____ _________, _____4____, ____5_____, ___6_______ __________.
    • 1. Cholestro-lipid fractions
    • 2. Cigarette smoking
    • 3. Diabetes mellitus
    • 4. Hypertension
    • 5. Obesity
    • 6. Physical inactivity
  57. ___1___ are more likely to suffer from CVD at a younger age the ____2___.
    ___3__ over 45
    ___4___ over 55
    • 1. Men
    • 2. Women
    • 3. Men
    • 4. Women
  58. Family risk factors are death of a parent or sibiling befor __1__ for males and __2__ for females
    • 1. 55
    • 2. 65
  59. __1__% of the adult population smokes and __2__ _______ young people take up.the habit each year
    • 1. 25
    • 2. One million
  60. __1__,_____ deaths a year are from smoking with __2__% from cardiovascular disease
    • 1. 430,000
    • 2. 40%
  61. In __1___ the surgeon general said quitin smokingbis the leading avoidable cause for ____2_______ disease, thus quitting is one of the most important interventions to prevent death from CVD.
    • 1. 1983
    • 2. Cardiovascular
  62. Smoking increases the risk for ___1__ _______ _______, __2___ ________, ___3_____ _________ _________ and _____4_____.
    • 1. Sudden cardiac death
    • 2. Aortic aneurysm
    • 3. Peeipheral vascular diesease
    • 4. Stroke
  63. One pack a day ____1____ your risk for CVD, more then one pack a day ____2____ the risk
    • 1. Doubles
    • 2. Triples
  64. Hypertension-chronic persistant rise in __1___ _______
    1. Blood pressure
  65. Risk of death ____1_____ with
    Systolic bp greater or equal to __2__ mmHg
    Diastolic bp greater or equal to __3__ mmHg
    • 1. Doubles
    • 2. 140
    • 3. 90
  66. __1__% of patients with untreated hypertension die from from CVD or Congestive heart failure __2__% die from stroke and __3__-____% die from renal failure.
    That can be reduced by ___4__ ______, ___5____, ___6____, ____7___ ______, ___8_____ _______ ________and ____9___ ______ ______.
    • 1. 50%
    • 2. 33%
    • 3. 10-15%
    • 4. Quitting smokin
    • 5. Diet
    • 6. Exercise
    • 7. Weight loss
    • 8. Increase physical activity
    • 9. Decrease salt intake
  67. Regular exercise can decrease your systolic and diastolic bp by __1__ mmHg
    Exercise also helps ___2___ ______ _______ and the ability for the blood vessels to change ____3______ during exercise.
    • 1. 10
    • 2. Blood glucose levels
    • 3. Diameter
  68. High cholesterol-blood lipids are made up of ____1______ and ____2_____. These are carried in the blood by a _____3____ molecule.
    Low density lipoproteins (LDL)- ___4___ cholesterol
    High density (HDL)- ___5____ cholesterol
    • 1. Triglycerides
    • 2. Cholesterol
    • 3. Lipoprotein
    • 4. Bad
    • 5. Good
  69. Elevated levels of _____1_____, ____2_____, and ___3___ increase risk for CVD. Increase levels of __4___ have the opposite effect, they are good they represent a positive risk facotor for CVD.
    • 1. Triglycerides
    • 2. Cholesterol
    • 3. LDL
    • 4. HDL
  70. Young men in the upper quartile (highest 25% for chilesterol levels) have a ___1___ _______ chance of heart attack then men in the lowest quartile (lowest 25%)
    1. Nine fold
  71. For every 10mg increase in cholesterole there is a __1__-____% increase in heart disease
    1. 20-30%
  72. Weight loss shows positive changes in lipid profiles and regular aerobic exercise _____1_____ triglyceride levels and _____2_____ HDL levels
    • 1. Decrease
    • 2. Increase
  73. __1__% of the adult US population is obese and __2__-____% of the population is overweight.
    • 1. 20%
    • 2. 25-30%
  74. Obesity can cause ___1___ ______, ____2_____, ____3_____, _____4_____ _________ and _____5______.
    • 1. Heart disease
    • 2. Diabetes
    • 3. Hypertension
    • 4. Gollbladder disease
    • 5. Cancer
  75. Body mass index under __1__ shows little ir no change in.mortality
    BMI over __2__ substantially increases moartality
    • 1. 25
    • 2. 25
  76. Once found to be overweight, each incremental ____1____ gained is associated with more risk
    1. Pound
  77. _____1____ is the best way to lose fat and maintain muscle mass
    1. Exercise
  78. When you loose weight through just exercise you lose ___1__ and ___2__, if you diet and exercise you lose almost alll __3__ weight.
    • 1. Fat
    • 2. Muscle
    • 3. Fat
  79. Diabetes increases your chance of a cardiac event by __1__-____%
    1. 300-500%
  80. __1__% of deaths from diabetics patients are CVD related.
  81. CVD risk is directly related to fasting ____1_____ __________ levels.
    1. Blood glucose
  82. Add on otherCVD risk factors to diabetes and you are at a much ___1____ risk then non diabetics with the same number of risk factors.
    1. Higher
  83. Metabolic syndrome x-- cluster of risk factors for CVD that coexist with diabetes they are ___1___, ____2____, and the inability to effectivly use ____3____.
    • 1. Obesity
    • 2. Hypertension
    • 3. Glucose
  84. A diet low in simple ___1___ and ___2___, regular ____3____ and ___4___ loss are a must.
    • 1. Sugars
    • 2. Carbs
    • 3. Exercise
    • 4. Fat
  85. Physical inactivity increases risk of ___1___, ___2___, ___3___.
    • 1. Obesity
    • 2. Hypertension
    • 3. Diabetes
  86. Independent risk factors, ___1___ as liklely to suffer from it then people who are active, this number is the ____2____ for people developing hypertension and high cholesterol
    • 1. Twice
    • 2. Same
  87. __1__,_____ deaths a year in the US are cintributed to physical inactivity.
    1. 200,000
  88. CVD mortality is inversely related to the level of ____1____ activity or ____2____.
    • 1. Physical
    • 2. Fitness
  89. __1__ is a major threat to firefighters health and safety.
    1. CVD
  90. you can reduce your risk of CVD by not __1__, ___2___ ____, and eat a __3___ _____, avoid saturated fats, excess simple sugars and maintain normal body weight
    • 1. smoking
    • 2. moderate exercise
    • 3. balanced diet
  91. Reocmendations for decreasing CVD risk factors.
    Exercise moderatley, __1____ blood pressure, lowers __2___, decreases body __3__, improves __4__ tolerance, eliminates physical ___5_____
    • 1.decreases
    • 2. cholesterol
    • 3. fat
    • 4. glucose
    • 5. inactivity
  92. Recomendations for decreasing cvd risk factors.
    Eat a balanced diet lowers __1____, decreases body ___2___ improves ___3__ tolerance, mayb decrease __4__ ______
    do not __5___
    • 1. cholesterol
    • 2. weight
    • 3. glucose
    • 4. blood pressure
    • 5. smoke
  93. Physical inactivity benifits _1_ out of the _2__ modifiable risk factors
    • 1. 5
    • 2. 6
  94. ___1___ and ___2__ can develope musculoskeletal strenghth and endurance, and functional movement around the joints. It is recomended for health, fitness, injury prevention, rehab, and for improving your over quality of __3___.
    • 1. strength
    • 2. flexability
    • 3. life
  95. Flexability
    ability to move a joint freely through an entire range of motion, good shoulder flexability means both of your hands can touch together behind your back.
  96. joint motion depends on __1___, __2___, ___3_, __4_, fat __5__, body __6___, __7___ and __8__
    • 1. ligaments
    • 2. tendons
    • 3. muscles
    • 4. skin
    • 5. tissue
    • 6. temp
    • 7. gender
    • 8. age
  97. many muscular and skeletal problems come from __1__ _____. For adults this is usualy the most neglectide part of exercising. You can benefit from this regardless __2__ or __3__
    • 1. poor flexability
    • 2. age
    • 3. gender
  98. Muscles __1___ with age diminishing range of motion. Regular stretching programs can ___2___ muscles and maintain or restore flexability.
    • 1. shorten
    • 2. lengthen
  99. Benefits from being of being flexable
    ___1____ risk of injusry
    ____2___ physical efficiency and performance
    increases tissue ____3_____ wich increases circulation and nutrient transport due to decreased joint viscosity
    increase neuromuscular ___4_____
    reduces muscle soreness felt _5_-___ hours after exercise
    • 1. dreases
    • 2. increases
    • 3. temp.
    • 4. coordination
    • 5. 12-72
  100. Benifits of strength training
    Improved body ___1___, muscle ___2___ and ____3____. All ages and gender can build muscle, one pound of muscle mass can increase caloric expenditure by _4__ to ___ calories per day
    ____5___ physical functioning
    ___6_____ risk for osteoporosis and osteoarthritis
    improved ____7____- good for the lower back region
    • 1. composition
    • 2. growth
    • 3. metabolism
    • 4. 30-50
    • 5. improved
    • 6. decreased
    • 7. flexability
  101. Ergonomic disorders- cumulative __1___ disorders and __2__ disorders.Alone these injuries often related to uncorrected posture and habbits pose a threat. Alone they seem to be __3__ but they can seriously exacerbate a fire ground sprain or strain to a jobb threating/time lost injury. They are _______ with a fitness program, behavioral modification, screenings and assesments.
    • 1. trauma
    • 2. back
    • 3.minor
    • 4. preventable
  102. Cumulative trauma disorders (CTD)
    wear and tear on joints surrounding tissue due to __1___
    every joint can be affected but lower __2___ and uppper __3__ receive the most injuries.
    they accumulate through __4___. Aute truama by contrast occur as a __5__ time event like a cut or a fall.
    • 1. overuse
    • 2. back
    • 3. limbs
    • 4. time
    • 5. one.
  103. Cumulative trauma disorders (CTD)
    CTD is also know as ____1_____ disorders ____2____ syndrome, ___3____ motion disorder
    They affect __4__ area were tendons, joints ad nerves are
    • 1. Musculoskeletal
    • 2. Overuse
    • 3. Repetative
    • 4. Any
  104. CTD's are most common from the ___1___ to the ___2___. Upper ectremity CTDS affect the origin of ___3___ ( were muscles attach to the bone, tendon, joints, blood vessels, and the nerves)
    • 1. shoulder
    • 2. fringers
    • 3. muscles
  105. Two types of trauma disorders are ___1____ and ___2_____
    • 1. Tendonitis
    • 2. Nerve Compression
  106. Risk factors of cumulative trauma disorders (CTD) are ___1___, ___2__, __3__ ____, __4__ ____, __5___ _____ _____, ___6___ ______, __7___ ______
    • 1. repetition
    • 2. force
    • 3. awkward postures
    • 4. contact stress
    • 5. vibration from tools
    • 6. tempature extremes
    • 7. stressful conditions
  107. Back disorders
    Lifting bending and twisting on and off the job can cause servere ___1___ and ___2___.
    Next to the __3____ ______, back disorders are the most often cited for job absenteeism
    • 1. injuries
    • 2. pain
    • 3. common cold
  108. Back dissorders
    Most common back problems ______ or ______ muscles, _____, ________ and _____
    ___ of the US workforce will likely experience a back problem at least once
    • 1. pulled
    • 2. strained
    • 3. ligaments
    • 4. tendons
    • 5. discs
    • 6. half
  109. Back disorders
    Most result from chronic long term __1____, rather then just one event, the discs, ligaments and muscles become scarred and weakend overtime time making them ___2___ to support the back
    • 1. injuries
    • 2. unable
  110. Lumbosacral strain
    overuse of lumbar and sacral muscles
  111. Sacroliitis
    inflamation from overuse of the lumbar muscles of the joints between the lowest and the sacral areas of the back, spinal bones (sacrum), and hip bones (ilium)
  112. Postural Low back pain
    overuse of the lumbosacral muscles by maintaining a posture that makes these muscles work beyon there capability
  113. Muscular Insufficency
    muscles are unable to bear stress imposed on them
  114. Herniated Disc
    the disc that sits between two spine bones (vertebrae) bulges from between them
  115. Degenerated disc
    wear and tear on the disc slowly destroys its structure
  116. Back problem risk factors
    ___1___ twisting, turning, reaching
    ___2___ loads that are too big or heavy
    lifting too __3__ from the body
    staying in one ___4__ for to long
    • 1. excessive
    • 2. lifting
    • 3. far
    • 4. position
  117. Back problem risk factors
    __1___ physical condition
    poor ___2___
    prolonged ____3_____- causes the lower back to bow outward, this curvature can lead to painfull lower back problems, common in office workers
    • 1. poor
    • 2. posture
    • 3. sitting
  118. Back problem risk factors
    heavy physical work- low back pain is more ___1____ in highly physical jobs
    1. prevalent
  119. Back problem risk factors
    Lifting- __1___, __2__, __3__ and __4___ will affect the onset
    • 1. weight
    • 2. speed
    • 3. duration
    • 4. frequency
  120. ___1___, ___2___, ___3_____-- most common cause of lo lower back injury is bending while lifting
    • 1. bending
    • 2. stretching
    • 3. reaching
  121. pushing and pulling-- ___-___% of all back strains and sprains
    1. 9-18%
  122. Back problem risk factors
    -twisting
    -vibrations
    -accidents
    -prolonged sitting and ___1____
    1. standing

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