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Drive Reduction Theory (Motivation)
What is Drive?
Organisms learn to engage in behaviors that have the effect of reducing drives
Drive: a state of unrest or irritation that energizes one behavior after another until of of them removes the irritation.
Homeostasis Theory (Motivation)
Organisms consciously and automatically funtion to maintain an optimum level of bilogical conditions.
- Sometimes energy must be expended to return to normal state. Ex: shivering when cold.
- **overlooks incentives such as eating when not hungry**
Incentive Theory (Motivation)
External stimuli pull organisms toward certain behaviors.
example: Saving space the whole day to pig out for Thanksgiving dinner.
Maslow's theory of a Hierachy of Needs: (Motivation)
Once one's needs are met at any given leve of the hierarchy, one's attn is drawn to the eneds of the level above it.
- Self-actualization: to strive & achieve fullest potential
- Aesthetic: creativity, beauty, sense of order
- Cognitive: thought stimulation/contemplate existence
- Esteem: to like yourself & see as competent
- Biological (hunger/thirst)
**bottom to top**
- Eating disorder characterized by self-starvation
- -distorted body image
- - constantly dieting/believing one is fat
- -perfectionists often & females mostly
- -self starvation
Eating disorder in which a person regularly eats HUGE amounts of food and then PURGES the body of laxatives, induced vomiting, fasting and excessive exercise.
Sexual Orientation Evidence "Factors"
1.Hypothalamus Evidence- larger= greater attraction to women (shared by hetero men and lesbos)
2.Right Hemisphere Evidence (larger=large attraction to girls)
Refers to things that are external to oneself--money & rewards (grades)
*less likely to enjoy compared to intrinsic*
Refers to things that are internal, such as pride of accomplishment.
*more enjoyment compared to Extrinsic*
The mental state of operation in which the person is full immersed in what he or she is doing by a feeling of energized focus, full involvement and success in the process of the activity.
- Include experience of:
- loss of self-consiousness, distorted sense of time, sense of personal control over the situation and effortless stream of action. :D
Zone of Proximal Development (Cogn. Development by Vygotsky)
The distance between what a child can do alone and what a child can do with assistance from others.
- Temporary support to help a child master a task.
- **Makes the distance of the "zone of proximal development" shorter!**
- Example: walking.
Secure (Attachment Style)
The child explores environment when mother is present, cries briefly when she leaves, is happy when mother returns, and goes off & plays again :)
The child clings to the mother, cries uncontrollably when she leaves, clings to mother once again when she returnes YET quicks &squirms.
Avoidant (Attachment Style)
The child IGNORES the mother while she's there, when she leaves AND when she returns :(
*sign of abuse or autism*
Disorganized (Attachment style)
The child doesn't seem to notice mother or looks away when approaching her, alternates between approach & avoidance. (weirdo...)
Generally happy & responds well to change and novelty
Slow to Warm-Up Temperament:
Generally mild reactions; Hesitant about new experiences
Irritable; Intense emotional responses
(see table on notes)
"Has Explored or is exploring the issues" AND "Decisions already made"
Identity Foreclosure: (table)
Hasn't explored the issues but the decision is already made.
Identity Moratorium: (table)
Has explored/ is exploring the issues but hasn't made a decision yet (Most college students)
Identity Diffusion: (table)
Hasn't explored the issues NOR made any decisions. (failure in life)
Authoritarian (Parenting Style)
Relentlessly imposing rules and demanding obedience (dictator)
Permissive/Indulgent (Parenting style)
emphasizes self-expression and self-regulation (hippie style)
*can lead to self-entitlement in child*
Uninvolved/Indifferent (parenting style)
Do whatever you want...neglectful. Can be seen as quitting or the child is just wayyyy too uncontrollable.
Authoritative (Parenting style)
They have rules and control, but explain when they are necessary in a loving & caring way. (best way)
The awarness that objects continue to exist even when they are not perceived. Lacking till age 2.
Conservation of Mass:
The understanding the physical properties do not change when nothing is added or taken away, even though appearance may change.
ex: same amt of water is a large glass and wide bowl for a three year old.
Collective Unconscious: (Carl Jung)
part of an individual’s unconscious that reflects the cumulative experiences of all of our ancestors.
Archetype: (Carl Jung)
a universally inherited, primitive, and symbolic representation of a particular experience or object.
Unconditional Positive Regard: (Carl Rogers)
the acceptance of the person as he or she is.
Conditional Positive Regard: (Carl Rogers)
the person is only held inesteem when they fulfill certain requirements set for them by the other person or society.
Self-Concept (Real Self):
An image of the person that they really are.
An image that represents the person they would like to be.
Neuroticism: (Big five Personality Traits)
The tendency to experience emotionalinstability: anxiety, hostility, depression, self consciousness, impulsiveness, and vulnerability very easily.
Extraversion: (Big Five Personality Traits)
The tendency to seek stimulation and enjoy the company of other people.
Agreeableness (Big Five personality traits)
The tendency to be trusting and compassionate rather than distrustful of and antagonistic towards others.
Conscientiousness (Big Five Personality Traits)
The tendency to show self-discipline to be reliable, and to strive for competence and achievement.
Openness to Experience (Big Five Personality Traits)
The tendency to enjoy new experience and new ideas
The Rorschach Inkblots:
A series of ten ambiguous inkblots. The subject is asked to describe what they see.
The Thematic Apperception Test (TAT):
A series of many pictures. The subject is asked to make up a story for each picture.
The Emotional Stroop Test:
The task will be more difficult and the pauses of the subject will be longer when trying to say the color of the words that relate to areas of concern.
Ex: Reading the word "Sadness" in green font but pausing for a second or so because you ARE sad.
Id, Ego, & Superego
The part that is comprised of all of our biological drives that demand immediate gratification (DEVIL)
- Ego: the rational, negotiating, and decision-making
- component of the personality.
the internalized values and rules we receive from our parents and society.
Denial: ( ego defense)
- refusal to acknowledge a problem or believe any information that causes anxiety
Repression:( ego defense)
"motivated forgetting" of painful feelings & memories.
Regression: ( ego defense)
an apparent return to a more juvenile way of thinking or acting (baby talk example)
Displacement: ( ego defense)
The diversion of an unacceptable though or impulse from its actual target to a less threathening target.
Reaction Formation: ( ego defense)
presentation of one’s thoughts or feelings,often through behavior, as the extreme opposite of what they actually are.
Projection: ( ego defense)
attributing one’s own undesirable characteristics or motives to other people.
Rationalization: ( ego defense)
When people “make excuses” and reframeunpleasant events as actually beneficial, or their actions as justifiable orrational (when the actions are arguably not so).
Sublimation: ( ego defense)
- The transformation of sexual or aggressive energies
- into acceptable and pro-social behaviors.
Assimilation: (Piaget Cogn Development)
We integrate new and similar experiences intou our existing "Schemas:
Schemas: a concept or framework that organizes and interprets info
Accomodation: (Piaget Cogn.development)
We adapt our current understandings (schemas) to incorporate new and diff info.
Sensorimotor: (Piaget's 1st stage)
Experiencing the world through our senses and actions (looking, touching, tasting) from age 0 to 2
**see object permanence**
Pre-Operational: (Piaget's 2nd stage)
- Representing things with words and images, but lacking logical reasoning.
- *age: 2 -6
- **See "Conservation of Mass"
Concrete Operational: (Piaget's 3rd Stage)
The ability to think logically about concrete events and engage in inductive (spec to general) reasoning. The ability to do basic math and understand cons. of mass.
Formal Operational: (Piaget's 4th Stage)
- Engage in abstract reasoning and deductive reasoning (general to specific). Capable of moral and ethical though.
- **Age 11 and UPPPP