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  1. characteristics of peritoneum
    • continuous (closed) serous sac except in females
    • parietal and visceral layers + intermediate (mesentary)-connects parietal and visceral, not attached to body wall
    • attachements/reflections-region of gut tube
    • covering-intraperitoneal vs retroperitoneal
  2. Greater and lesser omentum (mesogastrium)
    -attachments to stomach-peritoneum to stomach
  3. mesentery
    -attachement from body wall to SI (general term)
  4. mesocolon
    attachment from body to LI
  5. Ligaments
    folds(sharp borders) or sheets between organs and wall
  6. coverings
    • intraperitoneal-completely covered (suspended) except for mesentery
    • retroperitoneal-covered only on anterior surface (bare area)
  7. cavities
    • peritoneal, abdominal, pelvic, greater sac, lesser sac (omental bursa)
    • greater sac + lesser sac=peritoneal cavity
    • peritoneal cavity-completely covered by squamous cells
  8. dorsal mesogastrium
    • splenorenal (linorenal)
    • gastrosplenic (gastrolienal)
    • greater omentum-gastrophrenic, gastrosplenic, gastrocolic
  9. ventral mesogastrium
    • lesser omentum-hepatogastric, hepatodueodenal
    • ligaments of liver
    • no blood supply to liver from ventral wall-all from posterior wall and around gut tube
  10. what seperates dorsal mesogastrium from ventral mesogastrium?
    gut tube
  11. components of greater omentum
    • gastrophrenic ligament-greater curvature to diaphragm above others
    • gastrosplenic lig.-greater curvature to spleen
    • gastrocolic lig.-greater curvature to transverse colon
  12. functions of greater omentum
    • normally hangs over small intestine but may be tightly tucked into recess or wound aroudn viscera
    • keeps visceral and parietal layers apart-not static, constantly moving-b/t body wall and visceral
    • capacity to be drawn to infected or inflammed area and wall off area-can get adhesions
    • one of fat deposit areas of body and insulates against heat loss-2nd source of energy
  13. components of lesser omentum
    • hepatogastric
    • hepatoduodenal artery
    • portal triad-free edge of hepatoduodenal lig.
    • -portal vein
    • -hepatic artery
    • -common bile duct
  14. epiploic foramen
    opening to lesser sac
  15. relations of lesser sac
    • ant.-hepatoduodenal lig.
    • post.-IVC covered by peritoneum
    • sup.-quadrate lobe of liver
    • inf.-duodenum
  16. recesses of lesser sac
    • upper (subhepatic)
    • splenic
    • Lower (greater omentum)
  17. development of liver
    • from endoderm of duodenum (4th week)
    • develops in ventral mesentary (mesogastrium)-lesser omentum, falciform lig.
  18. fetal circulation of liver
    • ligamentum teres-obliterated umbilical vein in free edge; bounded to wall by falciform lig., runs up right of midline
    • ligamentum venosum-obliterated ductus venosus-carries blood back to liver
  19. anterior components of liver-coronary ligaments
    • falciform lig. splits into 2 ligaments-connection to ant. body wall
    • right and left coronary lig.-connection to diaphragm
    • right and left triangular lig-limits of coronary lig. layers fused
    • posterior coronary ligaments
    • bare area-bounded by 4 coronary ligaments
  20. posterior components of liver-lesser omentum
    • free edge: common bile duct, portal vein, hepatic artery
    • lesser curvature of stomach to visceral surface of liver
    • subdivisions-hepatogastric, hepatoduodenal
    • bare area
  21. dorsal common mesentary
    • mesentary
    • mesocolon-transverse & sigmoid (ascending, descending & rectum lost)
    • mesoappendix
    • ascending and descending-retro
    • sigmoid-intro
  22. peritonitis
    • infection of the peritoneal cavity, both common and life threatening
    • can occur from rupture of infected organ or by bacteria from stab or gunshot wounds
    • localization of infections can lead to intrperitoneal abscesses
  23. ascites
    • excess fluid in peritoneal cavity and one of the most likely sites is the subhepatic recess
    • drainage of abscesses is possible without causing generalized peritonitis
  24. paracentesis
    is drainage of large volumes of blood or serous fluid that accumulate in recesses
  25. where does fluid accumulate?
    • standing-accumulates in pelvis-rectouterine pouch
    • supine-subhepatic recess
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