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What are the four components of blood?
- Erythrocytes (RBCs)
- Leukocytes (white blood cells)
Fraction of blood that is made up of red blood cells
What is a normal hematocrit % for a man? A woman?
Plasma is 90% water, 8% protein. The 3 classes of protein:
Most plasma proteins; carriers
____ plasma proteins consists of two types:
___ & ___ which are carriers, clotting factors, & enzymes
___ which are involved in immune system
- alpha & beta
Plasma proteins which are important in blood clotting
General functions of plasma proteins (4)
- Increase blood viscosity
- Maintain osmotic pressure
- Buffer H+
- Provide fuel during starvation
What are erythrocytes? What is
their function? What is special about the shape of erythrocytes?
- Red blood cells
- Transport O2 & CO2
- Have large surface area which favors diffusion
What does hemoglobin do?
Greatly increases O2 transport but also binds to CO2, H+, & CO
Color of oxygenated blood vs deoxygenated blood
- O2: bright red
- DeO2: dark red
Where are red blood cells produced? What type of cells do they come from? What stimulates their production?
- Bone marrow; hematopoietic stem cells
- Erthropoietin which is secreted from kidneys when O2 is low
What happens when erythrocytes differentiate? What causes differentiation?
- Produce hemoglobin, lose nuclei & organelles
- Erythropoietin triggers differentiation of stem cells to erythrocytes
What happens to old or damaged RBCs?
Removed from blood by spleen
Decrease in the oxygen-carrying capacity of blood
What is hemostasis? What are the 3 steps to hemostasis?
- Stop bleeding
- 1.) Vascular spasm
- 2.) Formation of platelet plug
- 3.) Blood coagulation (clotting)
Damage to blood vessel which causes it to constrict to minimize blood loss; endothelial layer becomes sticky
What do platelet plugs do?
forms around site of vessel damage and fills the gap to decrease loss (blood clot)
What type of cells do platelets come from?
What is the purpose of fibrinogen?
converted to meshy fibrin around the platelet plug
Plasma without clotting factors
Secreted into blood in inactive form & are activated during coagulation cascade; produced by liver
Genetic disorder, deficiency in clotting factor, using Factor VIII