APK Exam3 Ch15

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APK Exam3 Ch15
2011-11-07 23:24:01
APK Exam3 Ch15 Blood

APK Exam3 Ch15 Blood
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  1. What are the four components of blood?
    • Plasma
    • Erythrocytes (RBCs)
    • Leukocytes (white blood cells)
    • Platelets
  2. Fraction of blood that is made up of red blood cells
  3. What is a normal hematocrit % for a man? A woman?
    • 42-52%
    • 37-47%
  4. Plasma is 90% water, 8% protein. The 3 classes of protein:
    • albumins
    • globulins
    • fibrinogen
  5. Most plasma proteins; carriers
  6. ____ plasma proteins consists of two types:
    ___ & ___ which are carriers, clotting factors, & enzymes
    ___ which are involved in immune system
    • Globulin
    • alpha & beta
    • gamma
  7. Plasma proteins which are important in blood clotting
  8. General functions of plasma proteins (4)
    • Increase blood viscosity
    • Maintain osmotic pressure
    • Buffer H+
    • Provide fuel during starvation
  9. What are erythrocytes? What is
    their function? What is special about the shape of erythrocytes?
    • Red blood cells
    • Transport O2 & CO2
    • Have large surface area which favors diffusion
  10. What does hemoglobin do?
    Greatly increases O2 transport but also binds to CO2, H+, & CO
  11. Color of oxygenated blood vs deoxygenated blood
    • O2: bright red
    • DeO2: dark red
  12. Where are red blood cells produced? What type of cells do they come from? What stimulates their production?
    • Bone marrow; hematopoietic stem cells
    • Erthropoietin which is secreted from kidneys when O2 is low
  13. What happens when erythrocytes differentiate? What causes differentiation?
    • Produce hemoglobin, lose nuclei & organelles
    • Erythropoietin triggers differentiation of stem cells to erythrocytes
  14. What happens to old or damaged RBCs?
    Removed from blood by spleen
  15. Decrease in the oxygen-carrying capacity of blood
  16. What is hemostasis? What are the 3 steps to hemostasis?
    • Stop bleeding
    • 1.) Vascular spasm
    • 2.) Formation of platelet plug
    • 3.) Blood coagulation (clotting)
  17. Damage to blood vessel which causes it to constrict to minimize blood loss; endothelial layer becomes sticky
    Vascular spasm
  18. What do platelet plugs do?
    forms around site of vessel damage and fills the gap to decrease loss (blood clot)
  19. What type of cells do platelets come from?
    Megakaryocytes fragments
  20. What is the purpose of fibrinogen?
    converted to meshy fibrin around the platelet plug
  21. Plasma without clotting factors
  22. Secreted into blood in inactive form & are activated during coagulation cascade; produced by liver
    Clotting factors
  23. Genetic disorder, deficiency in clotting factor, using Factor VIII