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•Genomes are highly dynamic (3)
- –Chromosomes break and fuse
- –Chromosomal pieces are lost or duplicated
- –Whole chromosome sets are duplicated
Removal of a segment of DNA
Increase in the number of copies of a chromosomal region.
Half-circle rotation of a chromosomal region
Unequal exchanges between non-homologous chromosomes
Parts of two nonhomologous chromosomes trade places
Movement of short DNA segments from one position in the genome to another.
Loss or gain of one or more chromosomes producing a chromosome number that is not an exact number of the haploid number
The final heavy chain antibody gene is ______ together from a set of many sub-modules.
Inversion is a _____ degree flip of DNA fragment:
-Pericentric, _____ centromer
-Paracentric, ______ to centromer
180; includes; adjacent
Read on it
Philadelphia Chromosome and Leukemia.
- Leukemia patients have too many white blood cells.
- C-abl is proto-oncogene and is a tyrosine kinase which regulate the cell cycle.
- The hybrid protein cannot be regulated anymore and is always "on" which causes an abnormal growth of white blood cells and creates cancer.
movement of small pieces of DNA from one position to another
Transposable elements (TE): all DNA segments that can move from ______ to ____ within a ____
also called "_____"
place; place; genome; selfish
Jump around with _________.
Need _______ to copy RNA to DNA.
RNA intermediate; reverse transcriptase
Move around _____ RNA _____
The ends are inverted ______
without; intermediate; repeats
What is and are examples of Aneuploidy?
- Loss or gain of one or more chromosomes
- - Trisomy 21, 18, 13
- - Klinefelter XXY
- - Turner X0
All chromosomes are from the same species
chromosome sets are from distinct but similar species
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