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Contrast Kant's/Hume's analytic (realations of ideas) from synthetic (matters of fact0 proposition.
- analytic relation of ideas
- -the subject is necessarily the same as the predicate.
- -cannot be contradicted. it's contradiction will result to falsity.
- examples: a square has four sides.
- one and one is two
- mathematical equations.
- Synthetic proposition matters of fact.
- -the subject is not necessarily the same as the predicate. it is based on sense- experiences.
- -it can be contradicted although it's contradiction is not happening in reality but it is a possibility.
- examples: it is cold in this room/ it is not cold in this room.
Descartes' dualism: res cogitans and res extensa
- Res Cogitans
- immortal/ infinte
- rartional self
- a thinking thing
- the mind soul
- the non material non physical
- independent being.
- Res Extensa
- extended thing
- mortal finite
- dependent on Res Cogitas
- without the "res cogitans" the res extensa is nothing.
Contrast hard behaviorism from sould behaviorism.
- Hard Behavorism
- -contends that there are no such things as minds or mental events, mental states or mental processes. there are only bodies in motion- and these motions are behaviors.
- -Hard behaviorists deny that we have "minds" or consciousness primarily because we can neither "quantify" nor sense them. to them we can only see human teings with their actions or behaviors.
- Soft Behaviorism
- contends that there many be minds and mental events, states and processes. on the other hand, however scientists can provide sufficient explanations and predicitions of activity in general, human or otherwise without ever referring to anything mental.
Functionalism mean? how did John Searle critcize the theory?
- attempts to develop a theory of mind that takes advantage of the insights of all 3 fields of study: philosophy, computer science and neurology.
Believes that the minds primarily carry out computations. mental states (beliefs, desires, being in pain) have a functional role of causal relations to other mental states, sensory inputs and behavioral outpuuts. thus for the functionalists the mind FUNCTION just like computers.
- John Searle
- criticized functionalism saying that if such is the case, then there is no "quality" aspect in human being considering that one merely acts through mental computational operations. he thought it was insulting to humans to say that we think like computers.
What does Eliminative materialism mean?
It contends that sentences which seem to refer to non material concious states such as "ihave a headache" will be capable of being eliminated in favor of more accurate sentences reffering to material states such as " my c-fivers are firing."
thus "folk psychology" pre scientific or old way of speaking . about feelins, motivation and concious phenomena must be replaced by a more scientific expression.
Know the meanings of the following terms.
b) principle of identity
c) Principle of causality
d) representationalism/ Representative realism
e) Aristotelian Dualism
- a) "truth/reality"
- according to Aristotle. Is the conformity between "what i have in mind" subjective and "what i sense- see, hear, smell etc. outside of me" objective. Thus for Aristotle, the reason why i know that a pencil for instance is a pencil because my idea of a "pencil" conforms or is the same with what i see, hear and what i have been taught as a "pencil."
- b) principle of identity
- "what is , is; whatever is not, is not"
- a thavle is a table and not a chair, a chair is a chair and not a computer.
- c) Principle of causality
- it says that in every effects there's a cause and in every cause there is an effect.
- - things dont just exist by themselves. if these things exist then there has to be the cause of their existence.
- d) representationalism/ Representative realism
- states that we do not and cannot perceive the external world directly; instead we know onl our ideas or interpretations of objects in the world.
- e) Aristotelian Dualism
- material world is the world
- weak dualism
- belief that the world is mortal. it exists with the body and dies with it.
- f) Scholarticismis the philosophical foundation of Christian teachings, doctrines and dogmass. was popularized by st thomas aquinas.
things that rene descartes doubted. His reason why he doubted them.
- -sensation- as the basis of knowledge. (5 senses)
- because senses can lie to you.
- -empiricism- as a philosophical idea in attaining truth/ reality.
- -dream and waking.
- there are cases where dreams are very real, and in the state of waking as if im dreaming.
- -doubted god religion and religious ideas.
- imagination or evil genius. many versions of god and which one is real.
- evil genius, tricking us in believing that they are real.
What is it that Descartes is sure of in the end? why?
that he couldn't doubt that he was doubting. since i am doubting, then i am thinkking and since i am thinking, then i exist. "i think, therefore i exist."
Contrast the rationalists innate theory of knowledge from the empiricists' tabula rasa theory of knowledge.
innate- you knew it before. comes from pure reasoning and thinking.
tabula- come in the world and learn it. from experiences.
Contrast John Locke's primary from secondary qualities.
- properties found in object itself
- are objective
- are dependent on the qualities itself
- examples: sixe shape and weight
- are dependent on the person perceiving the object
- subjective- the come from us.
- examples: color texture smell taste.
Contrast "cogito ergo sum" from "esse est percipi"
"i think, therefore i exist" rene descartes.
- Esse est percipe berkley
- to be is to be percieved
- the reason why things or objects exist is because somebody is perceiving or sensing these things.
Contrast Aristotle's concept of substance from Locke's
- aristotle's substance. that of which that exist in itself.
- example: man table apple house (physical)
- locke's sustance. is that of which we don't know or which we do not have knowledge of.
Contrast impressions from ideas.
- are our first hand sense experience of things
- they are lively and are currently happening
- pale copies of impressions
- only exist in mind unreal
- less lively
Contrast simple impressions from simple ideas.
- is one or single impression of an object; square, circle weet, red, brown.
- simple ideas- pale copies of impressions
- only exist in the mind/ unreal
- less lively.
contrast complex impression from complex ideas.
- complex impression-
- two or more direct experience of things/ objects.
- car, park, house.
- simple impressions-
- is one or single impression of an object; square circle , sweet, red.
Contrast atheism from agnosticism
- a belief that there is no God
- a belief that one can never know anything for sure about the existence or non existence of a God.
Berkeley's major concerns
- that nothing could be known fore sure.
- John locke ended his epistemology with substance "that which we do not know" which he claims comes from god.
- Athiesm/ Agnosticism
- because of too much stress on scientific materialism during his time he was concerned that god will no longer have a continuous involvement with the universe.
Difference between locke's and Berkely's metaphysics.
- Locke's metaphysics
- -believes that logic and god is not innate.
- Berkeley's metaphysics
- - monistic idealism
- one ideas are real. everything that we perceive or sense around us is reduced to ideas . these ideas that we have things or obejects are actually a collection of god's ideas.
Familiarize aristoltle's "four causes" and " the categories of beings"
the categories of beings
- four causes
- material cause- the matter of what the thing is made. wooden table; wood.
- formal cause- the embedded form. table; four legs, flat surface.
- efficent cuase- the trigging action that makes everything work. builder of the table.
- final cause- the purpose of the item. to eat on ,
Reasons why Descartes is considered as the father of modern philosophy.
Because he didn't like the tradition of the Aristotle era that dominated philosophy in the past. He also doubted everything and rejected his senses. Believed in whatever that was clear to him.
- -used absolute skepticism in attaining truth or reality.
- -questioned scholasticism- as a school of thought.
- -intro the mind body problem.
- -presented the idea that all knowledge is the product of reasoning based on self evident assumptions.
Contrast monistic materialism from monistic idealism.
monistic materialism- belief that only material, physical, measureable, things are real.
monistic idealism- belief only "ideas", spiritual, nonmaterial things are real.
Descartes’ rationalist argument for God’s existence.
God's a perfect being . Idea of god being perfect, the god must have perfect infinte objective reality. descartes relates this to logic. Something cant come from nothing. meaning that hmans did not just come out of nowhere, meaning that we came from God.
Explain Berkeley’s “monistic idealism” or “subjective idealism.”
- only ideas are real.
- everything that we percieve or sense around us is reduced to ideas.
- these ideas that we have of thing or objects are actually a collection of God's ideas.
Aristotle’s hierarchy of beings/things.
- plants and trees
- non living beings.
Differences between Aristotle’s and Plato’s concepts of “reality” and of epistemology.
- platos- two worlds,( shadow and becoming) phsyical real world, corruptible, moral. or
- the (world of being/ ideas)... perfect nonmaterial.
- he is a rationalist. we used to exist in the world of being.
- aristotle- empiricist. doesnt believe what plato believes. only thhe physical material world.
- experiencing things.
What do the “categories of
understanding” mean in Immanuel Kant’s epistemology?