Med Term Ch. 10

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ae_228
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115371
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Med Term Ch. 10
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2011-11-08 00:58:08
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Musculoskeletal System
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Musculoskeletal System
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  1. appendage
    any body part attached to a main structure
  2. reduction
    -closed
    -open
    • procedure that restores a bone to its normal position
    • -reduction procedure where fractured bones are realigned by manipulation rather than surgery
    • -reduction procedure that treats bone fractures by placing the bones in their proper position using surgery
  3. articulation
    place of union between two or more bones; also called joint
  4. cancellous
    spongy or porous structure, as found at the ends of long bones
  5. cruciate ligaments
    ligaments that cross each other forming an X within the notch between the femoral condyles
  6. hematopoiesis
    production and development of blood cells, normally in the bone marrow
  7. ankyl/o
    stiffness; bent, crooked
  8. arthr/o
    joint
  9. kyph/o
    humpback
  10. lamin/o
    lamina (part of vertebral arch)
  11. lord/o
    curve, swayback
  12. myel/o
    bone marrow; spinal cord
  13. orth/o
    straight
  14. oste/o
    bone
  15. ped/o
    ped/i
    foot;child
  16. scoli/o
    crooked, bent
  17. thorac/o
    chest
  18. acromi/o
    acromion (projection of scapula)
  19. brachi/o
    arm
  20. calcane/o
    calcaneum (heel bone)
  21. carp/o
    carpus (wrist bone)
  22. cephal/o
    head
  23. cervic/o
    neck; cervix uteri (neck of uterus)
  24. clavicul/o
    clavical (collar bone)
  25. cost/o
    ribs
  26. crani/o
    cranium (skull)
  27. dactyl/o
    fingers; toe
  28. femor/o
    femur (high bone)
  29. fibul/o
    fibula (smaller bone of lower leg)
  30. humer/o
    humerus (upper arm bone)
  31. ili/o
    ilium (lateral, flaring portion of hip bone)
  32. ischi/o
    ischium (lower portion of hip bone)
  33. lumb/o
    loins (lower back)
  34. metacarp/o
    metacarpus (hand bones)
  35. metatars/o
    metatarsus (foot bones)
  36. patell/o
    patella (knee cap)
  37. pelv/i
    pelv/o
    pelvis
  38. phalang/o
    phalanges (bones of the fingers and toes)
  39. pod/o
    foot
  40. pub/o
    pelvis bone (anterior part of pelvic bone)
  41. radi/o
    radiation, x-ray; radius (lower arm bone on thumb side)
  42. spondyl/o
    vertebr/o
    vertebrae (backbone)
  43. stern/o
    sternum (breastbone)
  44. tibi/o
    tibia (larger bone of lower leg)
  45. leiomy/o
    smooth muscle
  46. muscul/o
    my/o
    muscle
  47. rhabd/o
    rod-shaped (striated)
  48. rhabdomy/o
    rod-shaped (striated muscle)
  49. chondr/o
    cartilage
  50. fasci/o
    band, fascia (fibrous membrane supporting and separating muscles)
  51. fibr/o
    fiber, fibrous tissue
  52. synov/o
    synovial membrane, synovial fluid
  53. ten/o
    tend/o
    tendin/o
    tendon
  54. -asthenia
    weakness, debility
  55. -blast
    embryonic cell
  56. -clasia
    to break; surgical fracture
  57. -clast
    to break
  58. -desis
    binding, fixation (of a bone or joint)
  59. -malacia
    softening
  60. -physis
    growth
  61. -porosis
    porous
  62. -scopy
    visual examination
  63. a-
    without, not
  64. dys-
    bad; painful; difficult
  65. sub-
    under, below
  66. supra-
    above; excessive; superior
  67. syn-
    union, together, joined
  68. ankylosis
    stiffening and immobility of a joint as a result of disease, trauma, surgery, or abnormal bone fusion
  69. carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS)
    painful condition resulting from compression of the median nerve within the carpal tunnel (wrist canal through which the flexor tendons and the median nerve pass)
  70. claudication
    lameness, limpness
  71. contracture
    fibrosis of connective tissue in the skin, fascia, muscle, or joint capsule that prevents normal mobility of the related tissue or joint
  72. crepitation
    dry, grating sound or sensation caused by bone ends rubbing together, indicating a fracture or joint destruction
  73. electromyography
    use of electrical stimulation to record the strength of muscle contraction
  74. exacerbation
    increase in severity of a disease or any of its symptoms
  75. ganglion cyst
    tumor of tendon sheath or joint capsule, commonly found in the wrist
  76. hemarthrosis
    effusion of blood into a joint cavity
  77. hyptonia
    loss of muscular tone or a diminished resistance to passive stretching
  78. multiple myeloma
    primary malignant tumor that infiltrates the bone and red bone marrow
  79. osteophyte
    bony outgrowth that occasionally develops on the vertebra and may exert pressure on the spinal cord also called "bone spur."
  80. phantom limb
    perceived sensation, following amputation of a limb, that the limb still exists
  81. prosthesis
    replacement of a missing part by an artificial substitute, such as an artificial extremity
  82. rickets
    form of osteomalacia in children caused by vitamin D deficiency also called "rachitis"
  83. sequestrum
    fragment of necrosed bone that has become separated from surrounding tissue
  84. spondylolisthesis
    any slipping (subluxation) of a vertebra from its normal position in relationship to the one beneath it
  85. spondylosis
    degeneration of the cervical, thoracic, and lumbar vertebrae and related tissues
  86. sprain
    tearing of ligament tissue that may be slight, moderate, or complete
  87. strain
    to exert physical force in a manner that may result in injury, usually muscular
  88. subluxation
    partial or incomplete dislocation
  89. talipes equinovarus
    congenital deformity of one or both feet in which the foot is pulled downward and laterally to the side; also called "clubfoot"
  90. arthrography
    series of radiographs taken after injection of contrast material into a joint cavity, especially the knee or shoulder, to outline the contour of the joint
  91. bone density tests
    radiographic precedures that use low-energy x-rays absorption to measure bone mineral density (BMD)
  92. computed tomography
    imaging technique that uses an x-ray beam and a computer to make a series of cross-sectional images of a body part, which together make up a three-dimensional view of the area scanned; formerly called "comptuerized axial tomography (CAT)
  93. discography
    radiological examination of the intervertebral disk structures by injecting a contrast medium
  94. lumbosacral spinal radiography
    radiography of the five lumbar vertebrae and the fused sacral vertebrae, including anteroposterior, lateral, and oblique views of the lower spine
  95. myelography
    radiography of the spinal cord after injection of a contrast medium to identify and study spinal distortions caused by tumors, cysts, herniated intervertebral disks, or other lesions
  96. scintigraphy
    nuclear medicine procedure that visualizes various tissues and organs after administration of a radionuclide
  97. bone
    scintigraphy precedure in which radionuclide is injected intravenously and taken up into the bone
  98. casting
    application of a solid, stiff dressing formed with plaster of Paris or other material to a body part to immobilize it during the healing process
  99. splinting
    application of an orthopedic device to an injured body part for immobilization, stabilization, and protection during the healing process
  100. traction
    use of weights and pulleys to align or immobilize a fracture and facilitate the healing process
  101. amputation
    partial or complete removal of an extremity due to trauma or circulatory disease
  102. arthrocentesis
    puncture of a joint space using a needle to remove accumulated fluid
  103. arthroclasia
    surgical breaking of an ankylosed joint to provide movement
  104. arthroscopy
    visual examination of the interior of a joint and its structures using a thin, flexible fiberoptic scope called an arthroscope that contains a magnifying lens, fiberoptic light, and miniature camera that projects images on a monitor
  105. bone grafting
    implanting or transplanting bone tissue from another part of the body or from another person to serve as replacement for damaged or missing bone tissue
  106. bursectomy
    excision of bursa (padlike sac or cavity found in connective tissue, usually in the vicinity of joints)
  107. laminectomy
    excision of the posterior arch of a vertebra
  108. revision surgery
    bone
    • -surgery repeated to correct problems of a previously unsuccessful surgery or to replace a worn out prothesis
    • -revision surgery are often required to correct abnormalitites due to bone infecion, or to correct misalignments of bones, broken presthesis, and fractures of the bone around the prostheses.
  109. sequestrectomy
    excision of a sequestrum (segment of necrosed bone)
  110. synovectomy
    excision of a synovial membrane
  111. total hip replacement
    surgical procedure to replace a hip joint damaged by a degenerative disease, commonly arthritis
  112. calcium supplements
    • -treat and prevent hypocalcemia
    • - over-the-counter calcium supplements are numerous and are contained in many antacids as a secondary therapeutic effect. they are used to prevent osteoporosis when normal diet is lacking adequate amounts of calcium.
  113. gold salts
    • -treat rheumatoid arthritis by inhibiting activity within the immune system.
    • -gold salts contain actual gold in capsules or in solution for injection. this agent prevents further disease progression but cannot reverse past damage.
  114. nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs
    • -decrease pain and suppress inflammation
    • -nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDS) are used to treat acute musculoskeletal conditions, such as sprains and strains, and inflammatory disorders, including rheumatoid arthritis, osteoarthritis, bursitis, gout, and tendinitis
  115. salicylates
    • -relieve mild to moderate pain and reduce inflammation
    • -salicylates have anti-inflammatory abilities and alleviate pain. Aspirin (acetylsalicylic acid) is the oldest drug in this classification that is used to treat arhritis.
  116. skeletal muscle relaxants
    • -relieve muscle spasms and stiffness
    • -these drugs are also prescribed for muscle spasms due to multiple sclerosis, spinal cord injury, cerbral palsy, and stroke.

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