The coronary arteries are injected with a contrast material, and the arterial systme can be visualized with cinefuoroscopy; narrowing of arteries can be evaluated
Catheterization is used to meauser intrecardiac, transvalve and pulmonary artery pressures and meausre blood gas pressure to determine cardiac output and evaluate shunting
Continuous Hemodynamic Monitoring
allow for meausremetn of pulmonary artery pressure, CO and mixed venous saturation which provied information about pulmonary vascular resistance and tissue oxygenation
The reflection of ultrasound waves from cardiac surfaces are analyzed it is used to evaluate left ventriculare systolic functiona nd the structure and function of cardiac walls valves and chambers it can identify abnoral conditions such as tumor or pericardial effusion
Suface electrodes record the electrical activity of the heart.
Exercise Stress Tests
Numerous protocols for exercise tests have been uses to assess responses to increased workloads with step, treadmills, or bicylces ergometers, in conjuntion with ECg an Bp recording pt are evaluated for exercise capacity cardiac dysrhytmias and diagnosis prognosis and managemtne of CAD