Bio 9 Chapter 13

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Bio 9 Chapter 13
2011-11-16 17:04:13

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  1. 3/4 of the world's commercial energy comes from __________.
    Fossil fuels
  2. What sources does the other other 1/4 come from?
    Most comes from nuclear energy, and another small percent comes from renewable energy.
  3. What is net energy?
    Energy made-energy to make it available.
  4. What are some examples of fossil fuels?
    Oil, naural gas, and coal.
  5. What are the advantages of using fossil fuels?
    Fossil fuels are currently abundant and relatively inexpensive.
  6. What are the disadvantages to using fossil fuels?
    They cause air and water pollution, degrade a large area of land, and release greenhouse gases.
  7. Crude oil is the largest source of commercial energy in _________.
    the world and the U.S.
  8. What percent of oil reserves will be depleted between 2050 and 2100?
  9. What is OPEC?
    The Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries.
  10. How many countries are part of OPEC?
    13 countries
  11. What percent of proven oil reserves do these countries have?
  12. How many oil fields are in decline?
  13. What percent of U.S. energy come crom fossil fuels?
  14. What percent of that comes from crude oil?
  15. True/False: The U.S. produces more of the world's oil than it uses.
    False. It produces 9% of the world' oil, and uses 25% of it.
  16. What percent of global proven crude oil reserves does ths U.S. have?
  17. Where is most domestic oil production done?
    In Alaska and off-shore.
  18. Where does shale oil come from?
    Shale rocks.
  19. What is tar sand?
    Oil sand.
  20. Harvesting these resources cause _________ problems.
    major environmental problems
  21. What types of natural gases are there, and what are there differences?
    Conventional, which has crude oil, and unconventional, which has coal.
  22. Natural gas produces less ____ per unit of energy than crude oil, tar sand, and shale oil.
  23. What is LNG?
    Liquefied Natural Gas.
  24. How long will the world's supply of conventional natural gas last?
    62-125 years.
  25. What is coal used to produce?
  26. Coals is the world's _______ fossil fuel.
    most abundant
  27. How long are the U.S.'s reserves estimated to last.
    ~250 years.
  28. What pollutants does coal release?
    Sulfur & particulate pollutants, mercury and radioactive pollutants.
  29. What does coal emit heavily?
    Carbon dioxide.
  30. Who is a major builder of coal plants?
  31. Coal ash is higly _____.
  32. Where is coal ash often stored?
    In ponds.
  33. What does this cause?
    It causes the ponds to rupture, and leads to groundwater contamination.
  34. What did the EPA call for in 2009?
    Classifying coal ash as hazardous waste.
  35. Who created the clean coal campaign?
    The coal industry, who are rich and powerful and are trying to fight labeling CO2 a greenhouse gas.
  36. How is the coal industry negatively impacting the environment?
    Mining harms the environment, and brning creates carbon dioxide and toxic chemicals (ash)
  37. What are some safety features of nuclear power plants?
    A nuclear fuel cycle and reactor life cycle.
  38. What is done with the large amounts of very radioactive wastes?
    They are stored on-site.
  39. Why has there been a decline in nuclear power?
    Nuclear power is very expensive, and incidents like Three-Mile Island (1979), Chernobyl (1986), and Japan ( 2001) have brought up safety issues.
  40. There have been no new power plants in the U.S since ____.
  41. How is nuclear power vulnerable?
    There are 161 million people within 75 miles of an above-ground nuclear storage site.
  42. What are the pros of nuclear energy?
    Low environmental impact and very low accident risk.
  43. What are the cons of nuclear energy?
    High costs, low net energy yield, long-lived radoactive wastes, vulnerability to sabotage, and the potential for spreading weapons technology.
  44. How can the U.S. save 43% of the energy it loses?
    By improving industrial operations, motor vehicles, and buildings.
  45. What is energy efficiency?
    The amount of work from each unit of energy.
  46. Wat percent of U.S. commercial energy is wasted unnecessarily?
  47. What are some examples of energy-wasting devices?
    Incandescent light bulbs, internal combustion engines, nuclea power plants, and coal-burning power plants.
  48. What takes up 2/3 of oil consumption?
  49. What are some of the reasons for this?
    Low vehicle standards and the hidden costs of gas ( $12 gall)
  50. How can we show consumers the real cost of gasoline and encourge higher efficiency?
    By increasing gas taxes and cutting payroll/income taxes, and by giving tax breaks for owners of fuel-efficient vehicles.
  51. In what ways can green architecture in new buildings be energy efficient?
    By using solar power, fuel cells, eco-roofs, and recycled materials, using super insulation, and by building straw bale houses.
  52. How can we make exisiting bulidings more energy efficient?
    By insulating and plugging leaks, heat houses and water more efficiently, and getting energy efficient appliances, lighting, and windows.
  53. Why do we tend to use more widely used energy resources rather than energy efficient methods?
    Resources like fossil fuels are artificially cheap, and there is a lack of govt support/economic incentives, of information about energy efficiency, , and inadequate building codes and appliance standards.
  54. What sources give us renewable energy?
    Sunlight, wind, flowing water, sustainable biomass, and geothermal energy
  55. What does renewable energy drastically reduce?
    Pollution, greenhouse gas emissions, and biodiversity losses
  56. What renewable energy resources are direct?
  57. What renewable energy sources are indirect?
    Wind, moving water, biomass, and geothermal.
  58. What are the benefits of renewable energy?
    Decentralizing non-renewable energy would make the nation less vulnerable to power outages, it would reduce trade deficits and air pollution, create jobs, and save money
  59. How is renewable energy hindred?
    By unbalanced intermittent subsidies and inaccurate pricing.
  60. What devices and methods can be used to collect solar energy?
    Thermal systems, thermal plants, cookers, and photovoltaic cells.
  61. What is the world's 2nd fastest growing source of indirect solar energy?
  62. Where can wind farms be located?
    On land or sea.
  63. What is biomass?
    Plant materials and animal wastes that can be burned as a solid fuel or converte into a gaseous or liquid biofuel, such as wood, agricultural waste, plantations, charcoal, and animal manure.
  64. Where is burning biofuel common?
    In developing countries.
  65. What is a potential problem with burning biomass?
    A CO2 increase in the atmosphere.
  66. What are two liquid biofuels?
    Ethanol and biodiesel.
  67. What are the pros of using biofuels?
    Crops can be grown in most countries, there is no net increase in CO2 emissions, and it's available now.
  68. What is geothermal energy?
    Heat stored in the earth
  69. How can we access this energy source?
    By using heat pumps and hydrothermal reservoirs to access steam and hot water.
  70. Where is deep geothermal energy stored?
    In hot, dry rocks 3 or more miles underground
  71. What are the problems that come with using hydrogen instead of oil?
    Most hydrogen is in H2O, the net energy yield is always negative ( unless you use solar power ), fuel is expensive, air pollution depends on what methods are used, and it would be hard to store.
  72. What needs to be considered before transitioning to sustainable energy?
    • How much of the resource will be available in the next 25-50 years?
    • Net energy yield
    • Total Cost
    • Necessary subsidies/tax breaks
    • Economic and military security
    • Vulnerability to terrorism
    • Environmental effects
  73. What will this result in?
    A shift to decentralize, improved energy efficiency, temporary use of natural gas, a decrease in the environmental impact of natural gas, a mixture of renewables, and included environmentall costs in market prices.
  74. What is the Rocky Mountain Institute?
    A home and office in Snowmass that gets heat from the sun, heavy insulation, thick stone walls, and other methods, and gets 99% of its heat and hot water, 95% of it's daytime lighting, and 90% of it's household electricity from the sun.