Psych Ch 12

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Psych Ch 12
2011-11-09 12:21:52

modules 35, 36, 37, 38, 39
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  1. the branch of psychology that studies the patterns of growth and change that occur throughout life
    developmental psychology
  2. the issue of the degree to which environment and heredity influence behavior
    nature-nurture issue
  3. a research method that investigates behavior as participants age
    longitudinal reserach
  4. twins who are genetically identical
    identical twins
  5. a research method that compares people of different ages at the same point in time
    cross-sectional research
  6. a research method that combines cross-sectional and longitudnal research by considering a number of different age groups and examining them at several points in time
    sequential research
  7. rod-shaped structures that contain all basic hereditary information
  8. the parts of chromosomes through which genetic information is transmitted
  9. the new cell formed by the union of an egg and sperm
  10. a developed zygote that has a heart, a brain, and other organs
  11. a developing individual from 8 weeks after conception until birth
  12. the point at which a fetus can survive if born prematurely
    age of viability
  13. environmental agents such as a drug, chemical, virus, or other factor that produce a birth defect
  14. a newborn child
  15. unlearned, involuntary responses that occur automatically in the presence of certain stimuli
  16. the decrease in the response to a stimulus that occurs after repeated presentations of the same stimulus
  17. the positive emotional bond that develops between a child and a particular individual
  18. parents who are rigid and punitive and value unquestioning obedience from their children
    authoritarian parents
  19. parents who give their children relaxed or inconsistent direction, and although they are warm, require little of them
    permissive parents
  20. parents who show little interest in their children and are emotionally detatched
    uninvolved parents
  21. parents who are firm, set clear limits, reason with their children, and explain things to them
    authoritative parents
  22. basic, innate disposition
  23. development of individual's interections and understanding of each other and of their knowledge and understanding of themselves as members of society
    psychosocial development
  24. according to Erikson, the first stage of psychosocial development, occuring from birth to age 1 1/2 yrs, during which time infants develop feelings of trust or lack of trust
    trust vs mistrust stage
  25. the period during which, according to Erikson, toddlers (1 1/2-3 yrs) develop independence and autonomy if exploration and freedom are encouraged, or shame and self doubt if they are restricted and overprotected
    autonomy vs shame and doubt stage
  26. according to Erikson, the period during which children ages 3-6 yrs experience conflict between independence of action and the sometimes negative results of that action
    initiative vs guilt stage
  27. according to Erikson, the last stage of childhood, during which children age 6-12 yrs may develop positive social interactions with others os may feel inadequate and become less social
    industry vs inferiority stage
  28. the process by which a child's understanding of the world changes as a function of age and experience
    cognitive development
  29. according to Piaget, the stage from birth to 2 years during which a child has little competence in representing the environment by using images, language, or other symbols
    sensorimotor stage
  30. the awareness that objects- and people- continue to exist even if they are out of sight
    object permanence
  31. according to Piaget, the period from 2-7 yrs of age that is characterized by language development
    preperational stage
  32. a way of thinking in which a child views the world entirely from his or her own perspective
    egocentric thought
  33. the knowledge that quantity is unrelated to the arrangement and physical appearance of objects
    principle of conservation
  34. according to Piaget, the period from 7-12 yrs that is characterized by logical thought and a loss of egocentrism
    concrete operational stage
  35. according to Piaget, the period from age 12 to adulthood that is characterized by abstract thought
    formal operational stage
  36. the way in which people take in, use, and store information
    information processing
  37. an awareness and understanding at one's own cognitive process
  38. according to Vygotsky, the level at which a child can almost, but not fully, comprhend or perform a task on his or her own
    zone of proximal development (ZPD)
  39. th edevelopmental stage between childhood and adulthood
  40. the period in which maturation of the sexual organs occurs, begining at about age 11or 12 for girls and 13 or 14 for boys
  41. according to Erikson, a time in adolescence of major testing ti determine one's unique qualities
    identity vs role confusion stage
  42. the distinguishing character of the individual: who we are, what our roles are, what we are capable of
  43. according to Erikson, a period during early adulthood that focuses on developing close relationships
    intamacy vs isolation stage
  44. according to Erikson, a period in middle adulthood during which we take stock of our contributions to family and society
    generativity vs stagnation stage
  45. according to Erikson, a period from late adulthood until death in which we review life's accomplishments and failures
    ego integrity vs despair stage
  46. the period begining in the late teenage years and extending into the mid-20s
    emerging adulthood
  47. the period during which women stop menstrating and are no longer fertile
  48. theories that suggest that human cells have a built in time limit to their reproduction and that they are no longer able to divide after a certain time
    genetic preprogramming theories of aging
  49. theories that suggest that the mechanical functions of the body simply stop working efficiently
    wear and tear theories of aging
  50. a theory the suggest sthat aging produces a gradual withdrawal from the world onm physical, psychological, and social levels
    disengagement theory of aging
  51. a theory that suggests that the elderly who are most successful while aging are those who maintain the interests and activities they had during middle age
    activity theory of aging
  52. the process by which people examine and evaluate their lives
    life review
  53. a progressive brain disorder that leads to a gradual and irrevesible decline in cognitive abilities
    Alzheimer's disease