Business Management

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Author:
JessFrogge
ID:
115501
Filename:
Business Management
Updated:
2011-11-08 17:01:38
Tags:
Managing Change Innovation
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Description:
Chapter 12
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  1. What is Change?
    Organizational Change
    • Any alterations in the people structure, or technology of an organization.
    • Managing change is an integral part of every manager's job.
  2. Forces for Change
    External Forces
    • Market Place
    • Govt, Laws & Regulations
    • Technology
    • Labor Market
    • Economic Changes
  3. Forces for Change
    Internal Forces
    • Change in Organizational Strategy
    • Workforce Changes
    • New Equipment
    • Employee Attitudes
  4. Change Agents
    People who act as catalysts and assume the responsibility for the changing process.
  5. Types of Change Agents
    • Managers: internal facilitators
    • Non Managers: change specialist
    • Outside Consultants: change implementation experts (outside view)
  6. Categories of Change
    Structure
    • Work specialiation, departmentalization, chain of command, span of control, centerlization, formalization, job redesign, or actual structural design
    • Organization levels eliminated change in stratagy
  7. Categories of Change
    Technology
    • Work processes, methods, and equipment
    • E-Commerce
  8. Categories of Change
    People
    • Attitudes, expectations, perceptions, and behavior
    • Organizational development builds positive attitudes job satisfaction.
  9. Why do people resist change?
    • The ambiguity and uncertainty that change introduces status, money, authority, friendship, and personal convenience
    • The comfort of old habits
    • A concern over personal loss of attitude "why do we need these changes?"
    • The perception that change is incompatible with the goals and interest of the organization.
  10. Handling Employee Stress Due to Change
    Stress
    • The physical and psychological tension an individual feels when conforted with extraordinary demand, constraints, or opportunities and their associated importance and uncertainties.
    • Functional Stress- stress that has a postive effect on performance.
  11. Causes of Stress
    • Personal Factors: Relationships, money, sickness
    • Job-Related Factors: No supervisor support, work overload, changing jobs
    • Less performance, not at work, sick time (Bad Stress)
  12. Symptoms of Stress
    • - Changes in metabolism, increased heart and breathing rates, raised blood pressure, headaches, and potential of heart attacks.
    • Psychological- Job-related, dissatisfaction, tension, anziety, irritability, boredom, and procrastination.
    • Behavioral- Changes in productivity, absenteeism, job turnover, changes in eating habits, increased smoking or consumption of alcohol, rapid speech, fidgeting, sleep disorders.
  13. Reduing Stress
    • Engage in proper employee selection
    • Match employees KSA's to jobs' TDR's
    • Use RJP's to reduce ambiguity
    • Improve organizational communications
    • Provide a counceling program
    • Sponsor wellness programs
  14. Making Change Happen Successfully
    • Embrace change- become a change capable organization
    • Communicate constantly and honestly
    • Foster as much employee participation as possible-get all employees committed.
    • Encourage employees to be flexable
  15. Stimulating Innovation
    Innovation is crucial in todays ultra-competitve global environment
  16. Creativity VS. Innovation
    • Creativity: Ability to combine ideas in a unique way or to make unusual assocaitations between ideas
    • Innovation: Process of turning creative ideas into useful products or work methods
  17. Innovative Organizations: Common Cultural Variables
    • Accept ambiguity
    • Tolerate the impractical
    • Keep external controls minimal
    • Tolerate Risk
    • Tolerate Conflict
    • Focus on Ends
    • Provide Positive Feedback

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