History 302 Ch 25

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History 302 Ch 25
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History 302 Ch 25
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  1. Who was elizabeth Eckford on 9/3/1955?
    State troopers refused to let her enter the all-white Central High School in Little Rock, AK. Longes walk of her whole life. Local Newspaper article Hazel Brown published photo. Bryan 5 yrs later appologized to the child who grew up to be quite successful.
  2. What secured the New Deal legacy?
    Moderate democrates like Harry Truman, focused on ensuring the past new deal reforms. Some dismantling of the New deal did happen with the teaming up of republicans joining with conservative democrats because unions launched a series of unpopular post war strikes
  3. Why was the labor movement curtailed?
    In 1945 had great strength. Gvt support for union orgaizing during the New Deal, WWII and sit down strikes were successful in the 30's. Over 14 mill wrkers belonged to unions in 35% industrial wrkfrce. 1946 the war time prices were lifted and prices skyrocketed. 4.6 mill participated in 5000 strikes nationwide 1945-1946. Strikes were about higher wages & benes, and rights to participate in management decisions on investments, product lines, production methods, and plant locations. Fairness to returning vets. Congress of Industrial Org (CIO) allowed blacks and whites to stand side by side.
  4. WHat did Truman do with the rail workers?
    He threatened to have the military run the railroad and draft the strikers into the military. Before he was going to address congress they ended the strike. The president said that it would paralyze all our industrial, agricultural, commercial and social life.
  5. What other industries faired better then the railroad industries?
    steel and auto industries set the benchmark for wages, benefits, and shop floor practices that other companies like sear roebuck later adopted. Longer contracts insured a lengthy period of tranquility with no strikes
  6. What changed the tides for the republicans?
    mid-term campaign slogan "had enough" vote republican, capitalized on voters dismay over labor conflicts and higher prices. They won the house and the senate in 1946 congressional elections. the 18th congress passed strong anti-labor legislation over Trumans veto.
  7. What is the Taft-Hartley Act of 1947?
    abolished the closed shop, a practice that required all workers who benefited from a union-negotiated contract to join a union. Banned sympathy boycotts, strikes by workers who wanted to support another union's protest. All union officers sign addidavirs cerrtifying that they were not members of the Communist Party urging them to purge its most radical members who had pioneered new tactics, like sit down strikes. This was a blow to the labor movement. The merger between the CIO and the American Federation of Labor (AFL) in 1955 ignored unskilled and southern workers
  8. What were the presidential agendas for Truman and eisenhower?
    Democratic party slogan " Don't let them take it away" referring to min wage, unemployment insurance, social security that the new deal granted to industrial workers. For principle and pragmatic reasons Truman ordered the desegregation of the armed forces, an important civil rights milestone. Strom Thurmond ran against Truman. Truman won saying big business were gluttons of privledge.
  9. What did minneapolis Mayor Hubert Humphrey say in stance in the 1948 presidential election?
    The time has come to walk out of the shadow of states' rights and into the sunlight of human rights.
  10. What is the Fair Deal?
    Truman spent a lot of his 2nd administration fending off attacks from Senator Joesph McCarthy. The Fair Deal was proposals for a national health care, public housing, education, and public works projects. Healthcare stalled, but more hospitals were built and expanded public health facilities for the poor.
  11. When did North Korea invade South Korea?
    June 1950, N Korea invaded. This foreshadowed the Fair Deal allow presidents kennedy and johnson had later luck with pushing forward the issues.
  12. When did Dwight D Eisenhower become president?
    1952 and 1956 republican Dwight D Eisenhower. WWII hero. He bacame the first to use televised campaign ads. He ran on "peace and prosperity" noting his success in ending the Korean war.
  13. What was Senators Robert Tafts view on the Fair Deal?
    creeping socialism, because the expensive programs required high taxes and in the republican views gave the govt too much pwer. Eisenhower was conservative when it came to $ and liberal when it came to human beings. Eisenhower said he had no intention of dismantling the New Deal programs.
  14. Who said "should any political party attempt to abolish social security and eliminate labor laws and farm programs, you would not hear of that party again in our political history
    Eisenhower, however he did veto new public housing and public works projects and never offered up new social welfare programs of his own. He believed in keeping the budget balanced and limiting govt expenditures. Fostered strong ties between govt and the defense industry as the pentagon amassed a huge nuclear arsenal. Expressed missgivings about a large defense budger in 1953. In a speech, he urged the US to monitor vigilantly the growth of the "miliary-industrial" complex, which is close ties between the pentagon and defense industry that might influence govt policy.
  15. What factors caused many standard of living to improve for Americans in the 1950's?
    1950's most prosperous decade. 1945-1960 per capita rose 50%. wages grew by 1/3rd, and unemployment avf 4.6%. US produced 1/2 of the worlds manufactured goods. Middle class was a suburban home filled with modern appliances and a car in the garage. 60% of americans were considered middle class.
  16. Elvis Presley
    most famous rock and roller. Born in Poverty in Mississippi in 1948.
  17. What incentives encouraged prosperity in the 50's?
    aggressive union movement seeking higher wages and benefits and the New Deal safty net of guaranteed pensions and unemployment insurance for industrial workers. 1944 44% of americans owned homes. It jumped to 60% by 1960. 1944 GI bill of Rights that offered returing vets low interest loans and a tax code that provided incentives for homeowners. Gvts contructed roads, schools, bridges and sewers.
  18. What did people do with their money during WWII and after?
    They saved during the war and then purchased like crazy afterwards. 1950 6.2 mill fridges, 14.6 mil radios 6.2 autos. This was 3/4 of the appliances nationwide. Installement plans helped. Consumer debt rose 8.3 bill in 46 to 56.1 bill in 1960.
  19. Why did suburbs boom in 50s?
    they moved farther away from the cities that depended on cars for transport. The roads Eisenhower built to evacuate cities in case of a nuclear attach will now filled with suburbanites. OF the 13 million homes built between 1948-1958, 85 % were built in suburban neighborhoods. 1960 7 million lived in the subs.
  20. Who standardized suburban communities?
    William Levitt errected 1000's of mass produced homes in the potato fields of Long Island. Applying the Henry Ford techniques, he built Levittowns, planned sub communities where delopers standardized every part of the construction process. This dropped the price of homes from 14000 to 8000. This brought ownership in reach of buyers. 1935-195 birthrate jumped 40%. Nicknamed Fertility Valley linked the babyboomer generation. 76.4 mill americans born betwenen 1946-1964
  21. Suburbs - American Dream or a nightmare?
    Lewis Mumford (historian) labled burbs as cultural wastelands, sociologist Herbert J,. Gans moved his family to the Levittown to study the habits.
  22. Mumfords in The City in History 1961
    contended that burb life bred conformity, loneliness and alienation. Inhabited people in the same class, imcome and age group.
  23. Herbert J. Gans The Levitowners: Ways of Life and Politics in a New Suburban Community (1967)
    defended suburbanites in saying they are conspicious consumers and slaves to sudden whims of cultural and political fashion. They had become more tolerant then their grandparent with respect to govt, religion. Defended affluent.
  24. What insights do popular television shows offer into American Culture?
    The first commercial television transmission occurred in 1939 when FDR visited NY worlds Fair. 1948 178000 had tvs, 7 yrs later 3/4 US had them. Eisenhower said, "If a citizen has to be bored to death it is cheaper and more comforable to sit at home and look at tv than it is to go outside and pay a dollar for a ticket" Theatres closed, drive ins strived. Most shows payed attn to family and consumerism. The Honeymooners, the working class Kramdens. These shows did not offer minority insight.Nixon was the first pres to difuse a political scandal. First pres debate between Kennedy and Nixon.
  25. How did teenagers change?
    They no longer had to earn money for the family and had longer school days. They had their own political views and spent their $ on music. Sociologist Edgar Friedenberg noted that the teenager, seems to have replaced the communist as the appropriate topic for controversy. Rock and Roll music provoked the most rage among parents. Rock and roll got its name from the rythm and blues slang term, intercource. It took the draft to tame Elvis Presley.Ed Sullivan and Dick Clark. James Dean died in a car crash at 24 and became an icon for teenage rebellion. Married early and conformed to standards of their parents.
  26. What are Beats or Beatniks?
    members of the bohemian communities of poets, novelists and artists that fourished in the NY Greenwich Village and SF North Beach offered an alternative vision. They rejected home ownership, career, and marriage in favor of individual freedom and immediate pleasure including sex and drugs. "Howl" written by Beat poet Allen Ginsberg brought to life drugs and homosexuals. He laid the foundation for protests in the 60's. Televised it brought new words like Dig It, Cool, and Man taken from the blacks. Rebelled against traditions in the 50s, formed a new form of art called Abstract Expressionism. Personal expression over politics. The works of Polloc and Rothko embodied the rebellios streak of the 50;s youth.
  27. Seperate but Unequal: how did they challenge the segregated schools?
    Black and white children grew up in two different worlds, seperate parts of town, segregated schools, seperate water fountains, different resturants, waiting rooms, theatres, stores. CA 1947 supreme court rulling, educating mexicans were illegal because state law only authorized segregating children of asian decent. CA repealed the law. 1954 the Supreme court overturned the 1896 Plessy v Ferguson "seperate but equal" ruling that allowed the south to maintain segregated schools. They said the facilities were legal as long as they offered a room for both blacks and whites. 1954 Brown v Education violated the 14th ammendment. Psychologiust Kenneth Clark had to show segregation damaged children. A series of test that showed children of both black and white choosing which doll they liked best of a black and white doll. Nice was white, bad was black.
  28. Who is Emmett Till?
    In 1955 Till was a 14 yr old boy sent to his relatives house from the north to the south. His mother warned him of the racism. He asked a white girl for a date. He was drug out of his house that night and never seen again alive. The image of the boys corpse printed in black magazines and newspapers played a major role in the civil rights movement. What made his killing different from the others was his families fight back. They accussed were acquited which sparked the Montgomry Bus Boycott 1955.
  29. Montgomery Bus Boycott 1955
    The brown v education was the milestone in the fight for racial equality. Dec 1 1955 rosa parks a 43 black seamstress boarded a bus in downtown montgomery al. When a white man demanded her seat, she chose not to give it. Jo Anne Robinson heard of the arrest and momeographed 35000 handbills urging a 1 day boycott on the day of the Park trial. It was a year long boycott that brought leader Martin Luther King Jr and a non violent way to protest to the forefront of the civil rights movement. The request was to hire some black bus drivers and to allow a first come first served method. They refused. Carpools were set up, terrorist bombing occured at these locations.
  30. Martin Luther King Jr.
    26 yr old baptist minister. Toured the country giving speaches. Kings house was bombed, supporters brought knives and guns, but king turned them home. He said he who lives by the sword will perish by the sword. We must meet hate with love. Some whites became openly sympathetic to the movement. In 11/1956 the supreme court ruled that sefregated buses were unconstitutional. 12/21/1956 MLK boarded a bus. They were warned to not be aggressive to others acts and to ride with a partner.
  31. What were the little rock nine?
    After the brown decision the school board made plans to integrate slowly by inviting nine black teenagers to attend high school alongside 2000 white students. This required the intervention of federal troops. This escalated threats. Arkansas governor Orval Faubus said he would not force the change of what the people were overwhelminly opposed. He dispatched state troops to stop the black students from entering. Elizabeth Eckford tried to get past the troops, but they wouldnt allow her and the crowds started chanting lynch her. Eisenhower sent federal troops, paratroopers from the 101 Airborne devison they 9 walked up the steps surrounded by troops. They were tortured and only 8 survived the year. 1 expelled for dumping chili on a white person.
  32. THe sit ins
    Occupiers occupied seats in white only lunch counters and remained there even after they were refused service. They employed the tactic of civil disobedience, breaking the law in a peaceful way to call attention to an unjust law. 1958 James Lawson prepared these campaigns SCLC workshops. Remember the teaching of Jesus, Gandhi, Thoreau, and MLK. He trained many leaders in the movement: John Lewis, Diane Nash, Jim Bevel. They were to sit at their stools, no talking, look forward, go limp if dragged away, curl in a fetal position if attacked. Bob moses spearheaded a 1964 voter registration drive in Mississippi known as the "freedom summer". They employed a jail no bail strategy. With the jails filled up they couldnt take any more. Mayor West was confronted by Diane West and asked if he felt it was wrong to discriminate against a person solely on the basis of their race or color? he said no and three weeks later the lunch counters in Nashville were desgregated. Standins in theatres and sleepins in the lobbies of white only hotels ensued. Baker told students that their goal needed to be bigger than a hamburger so the students formed the Student Nonviolent Coordinating Committee or SNCC in 1960.Thanks to televison what happened in the south no longer remained in the south. Cold War and gemocratic capitalism agains communism helped civil rights protesters focus attention on the inherent contradictions between americas self proclained goal of spreading democrcy throughout the world and visible racial discrimination at home.

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