last exam

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last exam
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  1. mouth
    responsible for ingestion , mastication and deglutition
  2. salivary glands
    produce a fluid in the mouth that helps cleanse the mouth and teeth and that lubricates, dissolves , and begins the chemical breakdown
  3. tongue
    forces the food to the back of the mouth for swallowing , places food in contact with the teeth
  4. colon
    forms a semisolid waste material through haustral churning and peristalsis
  5. pharynx
    passageway for food , fluid , and air , involved in deglutition
  6. teeth
    composed of enamel , dentin , and pulp cavity , used in mastication
  7. pancreas
    contain acini that release juices containing several digestive enzymes for protein , carbohydrate , lipid , and nucleic acid digestion and sodium bicarbonate to buffer stomach acid
  8. gallbladder
    storage area for bile
  9. stomach
    responsible for churning , peristalsis , storage and chemical digestion with the enzyme
  10. ileum
    contains aggregated lymphatic follicles ( Peyer's patches ) in the mucosa
  11. liver
    produced and secretes bile
  12. duodenum
    contains duodenal ( Brunner's ) glands in the submucosa
  13. appendix
    coiled tube attached to the cecum
  14. esophagus
    collapsed , muscular tube involved in deglutition and peristalsis
  15. salivary amyase
    an enzyme that initiates carbohydrate digestion in the mouth
  16. pancreatic lipase
    the principal triglyceride-digesting enzyme in adults
  17. gastrin
    stimulates secretion of gastric juices and promotes gastric emptying
  18. pepsin
    secreted by chief cells in the stomach , a proteolytic enzyme
  19. bile
    a nonenzymatic fat-emulsifying agent
  20. cholecystokinin
    causes contraction of the gallbadder and stimulates the production of pancreatic juice rich in digestive enzymes
  21. lingual lipase
    secreted by glands in the tongue, begins breakdown of triglycerides in the stomach
  22. brush border
    microvilli of the small intestine that increase surface area for absorption , also contain some digestive enzymes
  23. villi
    fingerlike projections of the mucosa of the small intestin that increase surface area for digestion and absorption
  24. parietal cells
    produce hydrochloric acid and intrinsic factor in the stomach
  25. G cells
    stomach enteroendocrine cells that secrete gastrin
  26. taniae coil
    longitudianl muscular bands in the large intestine , tonic contractions produce haustra
  27. lacteal
    lymphatic capillary used for chylomicron absorption in the small intestine
  28. Peyer's patches
    groups of lymphatic nodules in the small intestine
  29. enteric nervous system
    controls the GI tract motility and secretions of GI tract organs
  30. rugae
    large mucosal folds in the stomach
  31. chief cells
    secrete pepsinogen and gastric lipase in the stomach
  32. oxidation
    the removal of electrons for m an atom or molecule resulting in a decrease in potential energy
  33. greater omentum
    • - attachments to stomach and duodenum
    • - drapes downward over coils of small intestine
    • - then turns upward and attaches to transverse colon
    • - contains a considerable amount of adipose tissue
  34. falciform ligament
    attaches liver to anterior abdominal wall and diaphram
  35. less omentum
    suspends stomach and duodenum from liver
  36. mesentery
    binds jejunum and ileum to posterior abdominal wall
  37. mesocolon
    binds transverse colon and sigmoid colon to posterior abdominla wall
  38. mouth
    • - oral or buccal cavity
    • - formed by cheeks , hard and soft palates , and tongue
    • - palate separates oral cavity from nasal cavity
    • - makes it possible to chew and breathe at the same time
  39. salivary glands secrete saliva
    • - ordinarily just enough is secreted to keep mouth and pharynx moist and clean
    • - when food enter mouth , secretion increases to lubricate , dissolve and begin chemical digestion
  40. 3 pairs of major salivary glands secrete most of the saliva
    • - parotid
    • - submandibular
    • - sublingual
  41. saliva
    • - mostly water
    • - provides a medium for dissolving food
    • - solutes include : ions , dissovled gases , urea , uric acid , mucus, immunogloblulin A , lysozyme , and salivary amylase acts of starch
    • - not all salivary glands produce the same saliva
  42. salivation
    • - controlled by autonomic nervous system
    • - parasympathetic stimulation promotes continuous secretion of moderate amoutn of saliva
    • - chemical in food stimulates heavy secretion of saliva sympathetic decreases salivation
  43. tongue
    • - accessory digestive organ
    • - skeletal muscle covered by mucous membrane
    • - maneuvers food for chewing , shapes food into a rounded mass , forces food back for swallowing
    • - lingual glands secrete lingula lipase: act on triglycerides
  44. teeth or dentes
    • - accessory digestive organ
    • - periodontal ligament anchors teeth to walls of alveolar sockets
    • - three major regions: crown , root , and neck
    • - dentin forms majority of tooth: calcified connective tissue , dentin of crown covered by enamel , root covered by cementum
    • - pulp cavity enclosed by dentin: contains pulp ( blood vessels , nerves , and lymphatic vessels )
    • - incisors , cuspids ( canines ) premolars , molars
  45. 2 dentitions ( set of teeth )
    • - deciduous 20 teeth
    • - permanent 32 teeth
  46. mechanical digestion in the mouth
    • - chewing or mastication
    • - food manipulated by tongue , ground by teeth , and mixed with saliva
    • - foms bolus
    • - soft , flexible , easily swallowed mass
  47. chemical digestion in the mouth
    • - salivary amylase secrected by salivary glands acts on starches ( polysaccharides )
    • - only monosaccharides can be absorbed into bloodstream
    • - continues to act until inactivated by stomach acid
    • - lingual lipase secreted by lingual glands of tongue acts on triglycerides
    • - becomes activated in acidic environment of stomach
  48. pharynx
    • - food passes from mouth into pharynx
    • - 3 parts: nasopharynx , oropharynx , laryngopharynx
    • - muscular contractions of pharynx propel food into esophagus
  49. nasopharynx
    functions only in respiration
  50. oropharynx
    digestive and respiratory functions
  51. laryngopharynx
    digestive and respiratory functions
  52. esophagus
    • - collapsible muscular tube , passes through esophageal hiatus ( opening in diaphragm )
    • - secretes mucous and transports food
    • - no enzymes produced no absorption
    • - layers : mucosa - protection against wear and tear
  53. 2 esophageal sphincter
    • 1. upper esophageal sphincter ( UES ) : regulates movement from pharynx into esophagus
    • 2. lower esophageal sphincter (LES ) : regulates movement from esophagus into stomach acid reflux

    adventitia: attaches to surrounding structures
  54. stomach
    • - serves as mixing chamber and holding reservoir
    • - mixes saliva , food , and gastric juice to form chyme
    • - forces a small quantity of chyme into intestine at appropriate interval
    • - MOST distensible part of GI tract
    • - in stomach : digestion of starch continues , digestion of proteins and triglycerides begins , the semisolid bolus os converted to a liquid
    • - certain substances are absorbed
  55. 4 main regions of the stomach
    • 1. cardia
    • 2. fundus
    • 3. body
    • 4. pylorus
  56. rugae
    large folds of mucosa in the stomach
  57. layers of the stomach
    • mucosa- gastric glands open into gastric pits
    • - three types of exocrine gland cells produce gastric juice
    • . mucous neck cells- secrete mucus
    • . parietal cells- secrete intrinsic factor and HCL
    • . chief cells- endocrine cell secrete gastrin
    • submucosa
    • muscularis - additional inner oblique muscle layer
    • serosa - part of visceral peritoneum
  58. mechanical digestion
    • - mixing waves
    • - gentle , rippling peristaltic movements
    • - macerate food and mix it with gastric juice creating chyme
  59. chemical digestion
    • - food may remain in fundus for about an hour without mixing with gastric juice
    • - digestion by salivary amylase continues until inactivated by acidic gastric juice
    • - acidic gastric juice activates lingual lipase
    • - digest triglycerides into fatty acids and diglycerides
  60. parietal cells secrete
    • H+ and CL- separately but net effect is HCL
    • - HCL secretion is stimulated by: parasympathetic nervous system , gastrin secreted by G cells
    • - trigged by histamine
    • -
  61. functions of HCL
    • - kills many microbes
    • - denatures proteins
    • - stimulates secretions of hormones that promote flow of bile and pancreatic juice
  62. parietal cells also secrete intrinsic factor needed for
    absorption of vitamin B12
  63. chief cells secrete
    1. pepsinogen : is converted to pepsin when it comes in contact with HCL acid or active pepsin molecules , pepsin digests proteins

    2. gastric lipase: splits triglycerides into fatty acids and monoglycerides
  64. mucous cells secrete
    protect stomach epithelial cells from gastric juices , only allows for a small amount of nutrient absorption , some water , ions , short chain fatty acids , certain drugs ( aspirin ) and alcohol
  65. G cells secrete
    • - Gastrin
    • - stimulates parietal cells to secrete HCL
    • - stimulates chief cells to secrete pepsinogen
    • - contracts lower esophageal shincter
    • - increases motility of the stomach
    • - relaxes pyloric sphincter
  66. pancreas lies posterior to
    • - lies posterior to greater curvature of stomach
    • - connected to duodenum of small intestine by two ducts

    1. pancreatic duct : joins common bile duct and becomes the hepatopancreatic ampulla , ampulla opens into duodenum at the major duodenal papilla

    2. accessory duct : empties into duodenum superior to hepatopancreatic ampulla
  67. pancrease is made up of
    - small clusters of glandular epithelial cells
  68. acini of pancreas form
    • - exocrine portion of pancreas
    • - secretes pancreatic juice
  69. pancreatic islets ( islets of langerhans ) form
    • - form endocrine portion of pancreas
    • - secrete hormones glucogon , insulin , somatostatin and pancreatic polypeptide
  70. pancreatic juice consist of
    • - water
    • - some salts
    • - sodium bicarbonate: buffers acidic gastric juice in chyme , stops action of pepsin
    • - enzymes : pancreatic amylase digest starch
    • - trypsinogen : converted to trypsin when reaches lumen of small intestine , trypsin inhibitor secreted by acinar cells to combine with any trypsin formed accidentally in pancreas of pancreatic juice / digest protein
    • - pancreatic lipase : the principal triglyceride-digesting enzyme
    • - ribonuclease and deoxyribonuclease : digest nucleic acids

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