Midterm redo

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Midterm redo
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  1. Anne Hutchinson
    charismatic colonist in Massachusetts Bay who questioned whether one could achieve salvation solely by good works; she led the Antinomian controversy by challenging the clergy and laws of the colony. She was banished from Massachusetts in 1638 and was killed by Indians in 1643
  2. Bacon's Rebellion
    attack by frontiersmen led by Nathaniel Bacon against the Native Americans in the Virginia backcountry; when the governor opposed Bacon's action, Bacon attacked Jamestow, burned it, and briefly deposed the governor before the rebillion fizzled. This revolt is often viewd as the first strike against insentive British policy, as a clash between East and West, and as evidence of the dangers of the indentured servant system.
  3. First Great Awakening
    religious revival in the colonies in the 1730s and 1740s; George Whitefield and Jonathan Edwards preached a message of atonement for sins by admitting them to God. The movement attampted to combat the growing secularism and rationalism of mid-eighteenth century America.
  4. Halfway Covenant
    Purtian response to the dilemma of what to do with the children born to nonchurch members as fewer and fewer puritans sought full membership in the church; leaders allowed such children to be baptized, but they could not take communion nor could nonchurch males vote in government/church affairs.
  5. House of Burgesses
    first popularly elected legislative assembl in America; it met in Jamestown in 1619
  6. Jonathan Edwards
    congregational minister of the 1740s who was the leading voice of the Great Awakening; his SINNERS IN THE HANDS OF AN ANGRY GOD attacked ideas of easy salvation and reminded the colonists of the absolute sovereignty of god
  7. John Smith
    saved jamestown through firm leadership in 1607 and 1608; he imposed work and order in the settlement and later published several books promoting colonization of N. America
  8. Mayflower Compact
    written agreement in 1620 to create a body politic among the male settlers in Plymouth; it was the forerunner to charters and consitutions that were eventualy adopted in all the colonies.
  9. Mercantilism
    economic doctrine that called for the mother country to dominate and regulate its colonies; the system fixed trade patters, maintained high tariffs, and discouraged manufacturing in the colonies
  10. Navigation Acts
    series of english laws to enforce the mercantile system; the laws established control over colonial trade, excluded all but British ships in commerce and enumerated goods that had to be shipped to England and to other English colonies. The acts also restricted colonial manufacturing.
  11. Roger Williams
    puritan who challenged the church to separate itself from the government and to give greater recognition of the rights of Native Americans; he was banished in 1635 and founded Rhode Island
  12. Salutary Neglect
    policy that British followed from 1607 to 1763 by which they interfered very little with the colonies; through this lack of control, the colonies thrived and prospered. It was an attempt to end this policy that helped create the friction that led to the American Revolution.
  13. Quakers
    church founded by George Fox which believed in "the inner light": a direct, individualistic experience with god; the church was strongly opposed to the Anglican Church in England and the Gongregationalist Church in America.
  14. William Penn
    Quaker founder of Pennsylvania; he intended it to be a Quaker haven but all religions were tolerated. The colony had very good relations with Native Americans at first.
  15. Battle of Saratoga
    a turning point of the revolution in octoboer 1777 when an army of 6000 british soldiers sureendered in NY the battle resulted from a british attempt to divide the colonies through the hudson river valley. the american victory convinced the french to ally with the colonies and assured the ultimate success of independence
  16. battle of yorktown
    a siege that ended in october 1781 when Washington trapped 8000 british soldiers on peninsula in Virginia after a british campaign in the s. colonies...this defeat caused the british to cease large-scale fighting in america and to start negotiations
  17. Ben Franklin
    america's leading diplomat of the time who served as a statesmen and advisor throughout the revolutionary era. he was active in all prerevolutionary congresses and helped to secure the french alliance of 1778 and the treaty of paris which formally ended the revolution in 1783
  18. coercive acts
    brtish actions to punish massachusetts for the boston tea party; they included closing the port of boston, revoking massachusett's charter, trying all british colonial officials acused of misdeeds outside the colony, and housing british troops in private dwellings.
  19. John jay
    lead diplomat in negotiating the treaty of paris; he secretly dealt with the british representatives at paris and gained all of america's goals for independence despite the deviousness and meddling of France and Spain
  20. Patrick Henry
    an early advocate of independence who was a strong opponent of the stamp act and great defender of individual rights; ;in 1775, he declared "give me liberty of give me death"
  21. samuel adams
    agitator and leader of the sons of liberty who supported independence as soon as the briish veered from salutary neglect; he was the primary leader of the boston tea party and later a delegate to the continental congress
  22. 7 yrs war
    fought between england and fance, known as the french and indian war in the colonies, it satarted in 1754, over control of the OHIO river valley and resulted in france's withdrawaal from north america. it was the impetus for parliament's taxing policy that led to the american revolution
  23. sons of liberty
    street gangs that formed during the stamp act ciris to enforce the boycotts and prevent the distribution and sale of the tax stamps
  24. stamp act
    a tax on more than fifty items such as pamphlets etc.... who claimed it was an internal tax designed only to raise revenue there unlawful for parliament to levy
  25. stamp act congress
    met in NYC to protest the stamp act nine of thirteen colonies peitioned the king and organized a boycott eventually helped to force the repeal of the tax. this meeting and action was a major step to colonial unity and resistence of british authority.
  26. sugar act
    designed to raise revenue by stiffening the molasses act, establishing new customs reuglations, and trying smugglers in british vice-admiralty courts--> first attempt to tax thte colonies in order to raise revenue rathern than regulate trade
  27. Thomas Jefferson
    lead author of the declaration of independence; in it he explained the colonists' philosophy of gov't and the reasons from independence. he wrote that vgov'ts that did not protect unalienable rights should be changed.
  28. thomas paine
    write of common sense, an electrifying pamphlet of january 1776 calling for a break with england, written with great passion and force, it swept the colonies and provided a clear rationale from colonial independence.
  29. Townshend acts
    levied taxes on imported items such as paper, glass, and tea; these taxes were designed to address colonial resistence to "internal taxation" like the stamp act, which had no connection to trade and was intended only to raise revenue. However, the colonials viewed towshend acts as revenue raising measures and refused to pay these as well.
  30. alexander hamilton
    strong nationalist, first secreatary of the treasury, he supported a strong central gov't and was founder of the federalist party
  31. alien/sedition acts
    series of acts designed to suppress perceived french agents working against american neutrality; the acts ggave the president power to deport "dangerous" aliens, lengthen the residency requirements, citizenship, etc.
  32. James Madison
    strong nationalist who organized the annapolic convention, authored the virginia plan for the consitution, and drafted the consitution amendements that became the bill rights; he was also a founding member of the democratic republican party.
  33. jay's treaty
    agreement that provided england would evacuate a series of forts in u.s. territory along the great lakes in return the u.s. agreed to pay pre-revolutionary war debts owed to brit's. the british also partially opened the west indies to american shipping. the treaty was barely ratified in the face of strong republican opposition.
  34. new jersey plan
    offered by william patterson to counter the virginia plan favored a one-house of congress with equal representation for each state. It maintained much of the articles of confederation but strengthened the gov't power to tax and regulate commerce.
  35. northwest ordinance 1787
    the major success of congress under the articles of confederation that organized the n.w. territory for future statehood; the law provided territorial status for a region when its population reached 5,000. at 60000, the territory could petition for statehood with the same rights as existing states. it set into law the procedure for expanding the nation that eventually led to the admission of many other new states.
  36. shay's rebellion
    an uprising in western massachusetts between august and febrary that closed the courts anjd threatened revolution in the state; the central gov't's inability to suppress the revolt reinforced the belief that the articles of the confederation needed to b e strengthened or abandoned.
  37. thomas jefferson
    first secreatary of state, who led opposition to the hamilton/washington plan to centralize power at the expense of the states; after founding the democratic republican party to oppose these plans Jerfferson was elected VP in 1796 and prez in 1800
  38. 3/5ths compromise
    agreement at the consitutional convention that broke the impasse over taxation and representation in the house of representatives; the delegates agreed ot count slaves as 3/5ths of a person for both.
  39. virginia plan
    edmund randolph's and james madison's proposal for a new gov't that would give congress increased taxing and legislative power; it called for two houses of congress: an elected lower house and an upper house appointed by the lower house.
  40. whiskey rebellion
    uprising in western pennsylvania in 1794 over an excise tax levied on whiskey; farmers saw the tax as an unjust and illegal levy, like the stamp act. prez washington crushed the rebllion with overwheliming force and thereby demonstrated the new found poewr of the constitution
  41. andrew jackson
    us general who defeated the native americans at horshoe bend and commanded the victory over the british at new orleans; he became a national hero as a result of his record in the war of 1812 and later rode that fame to the presidency
  42. battle of new orleans
    a major battle of the war of 1812 that actually took place after the war ended; american forces inflicted a massive defeat on the british protected city and propelled andrew jackson to national prominence
  43. Dartmouth college v. woodward
    case in the supreme court prevented new hampshire from changing dartmouth's charter to make it a public instiutition; the court held that the contract clause of the consitiution extende to charters and that contracts could not be invalidated by state law. the case was one of seriese of court decisions that limited states power and promoted business interests.
  44. emargo act
    law passed by congress stopping all us exports until brit and french interference with u.s. merchant ships stopped; the policy had little effect except to cause widespread economic hardship in america.
  45. Gibbons v. Ogden
    landmark case in which the supreme court struck down a NY law that granted a monopoly to certain steamboast operating btwn NY and NJ; the ruling expanded the power the consitution gave congress to regulate interstate commerce. it expanded federal power and limited state's rights.
  46. henry clay
    leading american statesman who served as a member of congress, speaker of the house, senator, and secretary of state and made three unsuccessful presidential bids. he was known as the great compormiser for his role in the comporomises on 1820, 1833m and 1850
  47. john marshall
    chief justice on the us supreme court, arguably america's most influential chief justice, he authored court decision that incorportated hamilton's federalist ideas into the consitutuion. he also established the principle of judicial review which gave the court equality with other branches of government.
  48. lousiana purchase
    region purchased from france in 1803 for $15mil; the acquisition doubled the size of the us and gave it control of the mississippi river and new orleans. jefferson uncharacteristically relied on implied powers in the consitution for the authority to make the purchase
  49. marbury v. madison
    court case that established the principle of judicial review, which allowed the supreme court to determine in federal laws were constituitional. In this case, the court struck down part of the judiciary act of 1789 which the justices believed gave the court power that exceeded the consitution's intent
  50. McCulloch v. Maryland
    supreme court case in which the court established the supremacy of federal law over state law; in this case, the court set aside a maryland law that attempted to control the actions of the balitimore branch of the second national bank by taxing it. by preventing maryland from regulating the banks, the ruling strengthened federal supremacy, weakened state's rights, and promoted commerical interests.
  51. missouri compromise
    settlement of a dispute over the spread of slavery that was authored by henry clay; the agreement had three parts: free states and slave states in congress, maine became the twelfth slave state, to maintain the balance between free states and slave states in congress, maine became the twelfth free state, and the lousiana territory was divided with the northern part closed to slavery and the s. area allowing slavery. this compromise resolved the first real debate over the future of slavery to arise since the consitution was ratified
  52. monroe doctrine
    issued to counter a perceived threat from european powers to the newly independent nations of latin america; it proclaimed: no new colonization in w. hemisphere, existing colonies would not be interefered with, and the u.s. would not interefere in european affairs. it became the cornerstone of u.s. latin american policy for the next century.
  53. second bank of u.s.
    national bank organized in `1816 closely modeled after the first bank of the u.s. it held federal tax receipts and regulated the amount of money circulating in the economy. the bank proved to be very unpopular among western land speculators and farmers
  54. treaty of ghent
    aggreement that ende the war of 1812 but was silent on the causes of the war; all captured territory was returned and resolved issues such as ownership of the great lakes were left to furture negotiation
  55. war hawks
    young congressman in the 12th congress from the s. and w. who demanded war with britain; led by henry clay and john calhoun, they hoped to annex canada, defend u.s. maritime rights, and end troubles with native americans in the trans-appalachian west
  56. corrupt bargain
    aggreement between prez candidates henry clay and john quincy adams during the disputed election of 1824; clay threw his support to adams in the hosue of representatives which decided the election in return, adams apponited clay secretary of states. andrew jackson who had plurality of the popular nd electoral votes believed he had been cheated out of the presidency
  57. daniel webster
    noted orator, consitutional lawyer, senator, secretary of state, and major spokesman for nationalism and the union in the 1830s, 1840s, and 1850s
  58. Indian removal act 1830
    gave the prez authority to negotiate treaties with s/e trieb and to trade their land in the east for territory in the west; it also provided money for land tarnsfer and relocation of the tribes.
  59. John C. Calhoun
    vp under both John QuincyAdams and andrew as senaotr and vp, he was the leading voice for s. state's rights from `1828-1850
  60. john quincy adams
    son of the prez john adams and secretary of state who helped purchase florida and formulate the monroe doctrine and president who supported an activist gov't and economic nationalism; after jackson defeated his bid for a second term in 1828, he continued to serve america as a member of congress
  61. market revolution
    the process that took place in the 19th century america in which an economy dominated by small farms and workshops was transformed into an economy in which farmers and manufacturers produced for a distant cash market; it was also characterized by the emergence of a permanent working class. these changes had significant consequence for american social insitutions, religious practices, political ideology, and cultural patterns.
  62. martin van buren
    senator, vp, and prez of the u.s.; the panic of 1837 ruined her presidency and he was voted out of office in 1840 he later supported the fress soil party
  63. nullification
    theory that the states created the consititution as a compact among them and that they were the final judge of consitutionality of federal law; the doctrine held that states could refuse to obey or enforcde federal laws with which they disagreed. the theory was first presented in the virginia and kentucky resolutions and reappeared in exposition and protest
  64. panic of 1837
    a major depression that lasted from 1837 to 1844; crop failures, european financial troubles and the specie circular all contributed to the crash, which helped ruin the presidency of martin van buren
  65. pet banks
    financial institutions friendly to andrew jackson's administration that received federal funds when he vetoed the second national bank's recharter in 1832 and reomoved all gov't deposits from it
  66. specie circular 1836
    a federal gov't action to dampen inflation brought on by land speculation following the closure of the second national bank; jackson issued an order requiring payment for public lands only in gold or silver. this action contracted credit, caused overextended banks to fail, and precipitated the panic of 1837
  67. spoils system:
    prax of appointing people to gov't positions as a reward for their loyalty and political support; jackson was acused of abusing this power yet he only removed about 20% of office holders during his tenure
  68. Tariff of abominations
    name given to high tariff passed in 1828 after years of steadily rising duties, this tariff raised rates on certain goods to an all-time high, leading to the nullification crisis of 1832
  69. Trail of Tears 1838
    the removal of 18000 cherokees, evicted from lands in s/e u.s. and marched to indian territory; nearly 25% of the peple perished from disease and exhaustion during the trip.
  70. Whigs:
    political party formed in 1832 in opposition to andrew jackson; led by henry clay, it oppossed executive usurpation (a strong president) and advocated rechartering the national bank, distribuyting western lands, raising the tariff, and funding internal imporvements. It broke apart over the slavery issue in the early 1850's.
  71. anti slavery society
    org. of reformers who embraced moral persuasion to end slavery; founded in 1833, it opposed gradual emancipation, rejected compensation to slaveholders, supported many types of reform, and welcomed women as full and active members
  72. american colonization society
    org. founded that advocates sending freed slaves to a colony in africa; it establisehd the colony of liberia and encouraged free african americans to emigrate there as well
  73. american and foreign anti slaveery society
    org. founded and led by the Tappan brothers that opposed the readical ideas of william lloyd garrison, especially his ttacks on the churches and the constitution; it foloowed a more moderate apporach and supported the political activities on the liberty party
  74. american society for the promotion of temperance
    first national temperance organization founded in 1826 which sent agents to preach total abstinence form alchohol; the society pressd individuals to sign pledges of sobriety and states to prohibit the use of alcohol
  75. charles finney
    a leading evangelist of the second great awakening; he preached that each person had capacity for spiritual rebirth and salvation, and that through individual effort one could be saved. his concept of utility of benevolence proposed the reformatin of society as well as of individuals
  76. cult of domesiticity
    the blief that as the fairer sex, women occupied a unique and specifici social position and that they were to provide religious and moral instruction in the home but avoid the rough world of politics and business in the larger sphere of society
  77. declaration of sentiments
    series of reslotuions issued at the end of the seneca falls convention in 1848 modeled after the declaration of indiependence, the list of grievances called for economic and social equality for women along with demand for the right to vote
  78. dorthea dix
    school teacher turned reformer; she was a pioneer for human treatment of the mentally ill. she lobbied state legislatures to create separate hospitals for the insane and to remove them from the depravity of the penal system
  79. elizabeth cady stanton
    pioneer in the women's movement; she organized the seneca falls convention and fought for women's suffrage throught the 1800s
  80. Lucretia mott
    quaker activist in both the abolitionist and women's movements' with elizabeth cady stanton, she was a principal organizer of the seneca falls convention in 1848
  81. second great awakening
    period of religious revivals that preached the sinfulness of man yet emphasized salvation throuh moral action; i t sent a message to turn away from sin and provided philosophical underpinnings of the reforms of the 1830s
  82. susan b. anthony
    friend and partner of elizabeth cady stanton in the struggle for women's rights; meeting in 1851, anthony and stanton founded the national woman suffrage associatoin after the civil war. the nineteenth amendment, which extended the right to vote to women in 1920, is sometimes called the "anthony" amendment
  83. william lloyd garrison
    most prominent abolitionist leader of the antebellum period; he published the antislavery newspaper THE LIBERATOR and founded the american anti-slavery society
  84. Antonio lopez de santa anna
    polotical opportunist and general who served as prez of mexico eleven different times and commanded the mexican army during the texas revolution in the 1830s and the war with the U.S. in the 1840s
  85. compromise of 1850
    proposal by henry clay to settle the debate over slavery in territories gained from the mexican war; it was shepherded though congress by stephen douglas. its elecments included admitting california as a free state, ending the buying and selling of slaves in the distric of columbia, a more stringent fugitive slave law, postponed decisions about slavery in the new mexico and utah territories, and settlment of the texas-new mexico boundry and debt issues
  86. free soil party
    formed from the remnants of the liberty party; adopting a slogan of "free soil, free speech, free labor, and free men", it opposed the spread of slavery into territories and supported homestead, cheat postage, and internal improvements. It ran Martin Van Buren and John Hale for prez and was absorbed into the republican party
  87. James K Polk
    "Dark Horse"; democratic prez nicknamed "young hickory" because of his close political and personal ties to andrew jackson, he pursued an aggressive foreign policy that led to the mexican war, settlement of the oregon issue, and the acquisition of the mexican cession.
  88. Manifest Destiny
    set of ideas used to justify american expansion in the 1840s; weaving together the rhetoric of economic necessity, racial superiority, and national security, the concept implied an invevitability of U.S. continental expansion
  89. Popular Sovereignty
    political process promoted by lewis cass, stephen douglas, and other northern democrats whereby, when a territory organized, its residents would vote to decide the future of slavery there; the idea of empowering voters to decide important questions was not new to the 1840s and 1850s or to the slavery issue, however
  90. Treaty of Guadalupe Hildalgo
    agreement that ended the mexican war; under its terms mecivo gave up all claims to texas north of the rio grande and ceded california and the utah and new mexico territories to the u.s.. the u.s. paid mexico fifteen million for the land but the land cession amounted to nearly half that nation's territory.
  91. Wilmot Proviso
    measure introduced in congess to prohibit slavery in all territory that might be gained by the mexican war, southerners blocked its passage in sentae. afterward it became the congressional rallying platform for the antislavery forces in the late 1840s and early 1850s
  92. winfield Scott
    arguably the finest military figure in america from the war of 1812 to the civil war; he distinguished himself in the mexican war, ran unsuccessfully for prez, and briefly commanded the union armies at the beginning of the civil war.
  93. Zachary Taylor
    military hero of the mexican war and the last whig elected prez; his sudden death in july 1850 allowed supporters of the compromise of 1850 to get the measures through congress
  94. xyz affair
    The XYZ Affair was a 1798 diplomatic episode during the administration of John Adams that Americans interpreted as an insult from France. It led to an undeclared naval war called the Quasi-War, which raged at sea from 1797 to 1800. The Federalist Party took advantage of the national anger to build an army and pass the Alien and Sedition Acts to damage the rival Democratic Republican Party.[1]
  95. kentucky/virginia resolves
    The Kentucky and Virginia Resolutions (or Resolves) were political statements drafted in 1798 and 1799, in which the Kentucky and Virginia legislatures took the position that the federal Alien and Sedition Acts were unconstitutional. The Resolutions argued that the states had the right and the duty to declare unconstitutional any acts of Congress that were not authorized by the Constitution. In doing so, they argued for states' rights and strict constructionism of the Constitution. The Kentucky and Virginia Resolutions of 1798 were written secretly by Vice President Thomas Jefferson and James Madison, respectively.
  96. James Madison
    James Madison, Jr. (March 16, 1751 – June 28, 1836) was an American statesman and political theorist. He was the fourth President of the United States (1809–1817) and is hailed as the “Father of the Constitution” for being the primary author of the United States Constitution and the author of the United States Bill of Rights.[1]
  97. John Adams
    John Adams (October 30, 1735 – July 4, 1826) was an American lawyer, statesman, diplomat and political theorist. A leading champion of independence in 1776, he was the second President of the United States (1797–1801). Hailing from New England, Adams, a prominent lawyer and public figure in Boston, was highly educated and represented Enlightenment values promoting republicanism. A Federalist, he was highly influential and one of the key Founding Fathers of the United States.
  98. writ of mandamus
    A writ of mandamus or mandamus (which means "we command" in Latin), or sometimes mandate, is the name of one of the prerogative writs in the common law, and is "issued by a superior court to compel a lower court or a government officer to perform mandatory or purely ministerial duties correctly".[1]
  99. Judiciary act of 1802
    The United States Judiciary Act of 1802 (2 Stat. 156) was a Federal statute, enacted on April 29, 1802, to reorganize the federal court system. It restored some elements of the Judiciary Act of 1801, which had been adopted by the Federalist majority in the previous Congress, but was repealed by the Democratic-Republican majority earlier in 1802.
  100. nonintercourse act
    The Nonintercourse Act (also known as the Indian Intercourse Act or the Indian Nonintercourse Act) is the collective name given to six statutes passed by the United States Congress in 1790, 1793, 1796, 1799, 1802, and 1834. The Act regulates commerce between Native Americans and non-Indians. The most notable provisions of the Act regulate the inalienability of aboriginal title in the United States, a continuing source of litigation for almost 200 years
  101. privateers
    pirates/smugglers
  102. Rapproachement
    In international relations a rapprochement, which comes from the French word rapprocher ("to bring together"), is a re-establishment of cordial relations, as between two countries. In the political scene of an individual country rapprochement means the bringing together of diverse political factions as, for example, during metapolitefsi in Greece.
  103. protective tariff
    • A tariff may be either tax on imports or exports (trade tariff), or a list or schedule of prices for such things as rail service, bus routes, and electrical usage (electrical tariff, etc.).[1]
    • The word comes from the Italian word tariffa "list of prices, book of rates," which is derived from the Arabic ta'rif "to notify or announce."[2]
  104. internal improvements
    Internal improvements is the term used historically in the United States for public works from the end of the American Revolution through much of the 19th century, mainly for the creation of a transportation infrastructure: roads, turnpikes, canals, harbors and navigation improvements.
  105. factionalism
    subdivisions within political parties
  106. nullification crisis
    The Nullification Crisis was a sectional crisis during the presidency of Andrew Jackson created by South Carolina's 1832 Ordinance of Nullification. This ordinance declared by the power of the State that the federal Tariff of 1828 and 1832 were unconstitutional and therefore null and void within the sovereign boundaries of South Carolina. The controversial and highly protective Tariff of 1828 (known to its detractors as the "Tariff of Abominations") was enacted into law during the presidency of John Quincy Adams. The tariff was opposed in the South and parts of New England. Its opponents expected that the election of Jackson as President would result in the tariff being significantly reduced.[1]
  107. Hartford Convention
    The Hartford Convention was an event spanning from December 15, 1814–January 4, 1815 in the United States during the War of 1812 in which New England's opposition to the war reached the point where secession from the United States was discussed. The end of the war — with a return to the status quo ante bellum — disgraced the Federalist Party, which disbanded in most places.
  108. rush-bagot agreement
    The Rush-Bagot Treaty was a treaty between the United States and Britain ratified by the United States Senate on April 16, 1818. The treaty provided for a large demilitarization of the Great Lakes and Lake Champlain, where many British naval arrangements and forts still remained. The treaty stipulated that the United States and British North America could each maintain one military vessel (no more than 100 tons burden) as well as one cannon (no more than eighteen pounds) on Lake Ontario and Lake Champlain. The remaining Great Lakes permitted the United States and British North America to keep two military vessels "of like burden" on the waters armed with "like force". The treaty, and the separate Treaty of 1818, laid the basis for a demilitarized boundary between the U.S. and British North America. [1]
  109. tallmadge amendment
    The Tallmadge Amendment was submitted by James Tallmadge, Jr. in the United States House of Representatives on February 13, 1819, during the debate regarding the admission of Missouri as a state. Tallmadge, an opponent of slavery, sought to impose conditions on Missouri that would extinguish slavery within a generation:
  110. s. carolina exposition and protest
    • The South Carolina Exposition and Protest, also known as Calhoun's Exposition, was written in December 1828 by John C. Calhoun, then vice president under John Quincy Adams and later under Andrew Jackson. Calhoun did not formally state his authorship at the time, though it was known.
    • The document was a protest against the Tariff of 1828, also known as the Tariff of Abominations. The document stated that if the tariff was not repealed, South Carolina would secede. It stated also Calhoun's Doctrine of nullification, i.e., the idea that a state has the right to reject federal law, first introduced by Thomas Jefferson and James Madison in their Kentucky and Virginia Resolutions.
  111. factory system
    The factory system was a method of manufacturing first adopted in England at the beginning of the Industrial Revolution in the 1750s and later spread abroad. Fundamentally, each worker created a separate part of the total assembly of a product, thus increasing the efficiency of factories. Workers, paid by wage, and machines were brought together in a central factory. All the processes of production would be carried out under one roof, and would continue as long as it was practical.
  112. waltham system
    • Waltham-Lowell System was a labor and production model employed in the United States, particularly in New England, during the early years of the American textile industry in the early 19th Century.
    • Made possible by inventions such as the spinning jenny, spinning mule, and water frame in England around the time of the American Revolution, the textile industry was among the earliest mechanized industries, and models of production and labor sources were first explored here.
  113. turnpike
    • Turnpike, a toll road in United States, especially near the East Coast.
    • Turnpike, a road built in the United Kingdom by a turnpike trust, a body set up by Act of Parliament, with powers to collect road tolls for maintaining the principal highways during the 18th and 19th centuries
  114. Nat Turner
    Nathaniel "Nat" Turner (October 2, 1800 – November 11, 1831) was an American slave who led a slave rebellion in Virginia on August 21, 1831 that resulted in 60 white deaths and at least 100 black deaths,[2] the largest number of fatalities to occur in one uprising prior to the American Civil War in the southern United States. He gathered supporters in Southampton County, Virginia. Turner was convicted, sentenced to death, and hanged. In the aftermath, the state executed 56 blacks accused of being part of Turner's slave rebellion. Two hundred blacks were also beaten and killed by white militias and mobs reacting with violence. Across Virginia and other southern states, state legislators passed new laws prohibiting education of slaves and free blacks, restricting rights of assembly and other civil rights for free blacks, and requiring white ministers to be present at black worship services.
  115. Denmark Vesey
    Denmark Vesey originally Telemaque, (1767? – July 2, 1822) was an African American slave brought to the United States from the Caribbean of Coromantee background. After purchasing his freedom, he planned what would have been one of the largest slave rebellions in the United States. Word of the plans was leaked, and at Charleston, South Carolina, authorities arrested the plot's leaders before the uprising could begin. Vesey and others were tried, convicted and executed. Although it was almost certainly not his home, the Denmark Vesey House at Charleston was named a National Historic Landmark in 1976.

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