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Why do all living things look the way they do?
Darwin said it was, "eveloution"
What did Darwin say about evolution?
- All living things come form a common ancestor
- All liing things naturally changed over time into different species
What did the ancient greek philosopher, plato, say?
- The earth is a sphere at the center of the universe
- All things have an unchanging idealized form
What does the Miller-Urey experiment demonstrate?
Complex molecules can spontaneously form from simple chemicals
What is the evidence of evolution?
- Biological Classification
- Anatomical similarities between organisms
- Useless traits in modern species
- Shared Developmental pathways
- DNA similarities
- Distibution of organisms on earth
- Fossil evidence
what year was darwins book on the Banned Book List?
What is Artificial Selection?
Selection imposed by human choice?
What 2 things did Darwin discuss in his book?
- Common decent of all life
- Natural selection causes living things to change over time
What is Fitness? (Darwin)
Relative survival and reproduction of one individual
What is adaptation?
Traits that increase an individuals fitness in a particular environment
What 4 observations did Darwin present about how the world works? (natural selection)
- Individuals within populations vary (ex. different fur)
- Some of the variation within individuals can be passed on to their offspring
- Populations of organisms produce more offspring than will survive
- Survival and reproduction are not random: individuals have different levels of fitness, and individuals with adaptations for a partibular environment are more likely to survive
What is Modern Synthesis?
The union of genetics and evolution
Explain the 3 points about Modern Synthesis
- Alleles are the basis of variation and traits
- Mutations can create new alleles and provide the basis for a new trait
- Natural selection provides a filter that selects for or against new phenotypes
What is Evolution?
- A change in allele frequancey in a population overtime
- or The change that occurs in the characteristics of organisms in a population over time
Explain why natural selection cannot cause new traits to arise?
- it isn't an issue of organisms "wanting" to evolve
- selection can only act on variations that already exist in a population
Explain why Natural selection doesn't result in perfection
- An adaptation that is beneficial in one situation might be a liability in another
- Adaptations are trade-offs between better fitness in one situation versus another situation
Explain why Natural selection doesn't progression towards a goal
Natural selection favors variants with the most appropriate adaptations for current environment
What different environmental conditions can lead to diffrent changes in population?
- Directional selection: causes the poopulation to change
- Stabilizing Selection: Extreem variants in population stay the same
- Diversifying Selection: Casues evolution of population consisting of 2 or more variants
What did Mycobacterium tuberculosis observe that darwin did as well?
- Bacteria in population vary
- the variation among bacteria can be passed on to offspring
- More bacteria are produced than survived
- bacterial survival is not random
What are Species?
Things that can breed and make offspring
What is Spacial Isolation?
Living far away
What is Behavioral?
Mating behaviors are different
What is mechanical?
Sex organs are invompateble in defferent organisms
What is Temporal?
Timing of readiness are different in species
What is Gamete incompatibility?
Protiens on eggs only connect to 1 specie
What is Divergence?
The accumulation of differences between populations
What is Biological Race?
Populations of a single species that have diverged from each other
What are some examples of divergence
When a single population diverges into many new species in a new isolated habitat such as distant isnland
What is systematics?
Discribing and catagorizing living things
What is phylogeny?
Studying the evolutionary history of living things
What are the order of primates?
- Common Chimpanzee
- Squirrel Monkey
Things that are different between monkey and human
- Foramen Magnum
- Limbs Relative to body
What are Mechanisms of reproductive isolation?
- spacial isolation
- gamete incompatibility
- hybrid inviability
- hybrid sterilitly
What is Founder Hypothises?
When a single population diverges into many new species in a new isolated habitat such as distant islands
What is genetic drift?
A change in allele frequancey that occurs due to change
What is Founder effect?
Random change in allele frequency due to a small group establishing a new population
What is population bottleneck?
Random change in allele frequency due to a dramatic reduction in population size followed by a rapid increase in population size
What is Small population genetic drift?
Random change in allele frequency that is exacerbated by a small population size
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