Micro Exam 3

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  1. Normal flora
    organisms that routinely reside on the bodies surfaces, it's a balancing act
  2. Pathogen
    are relatively few microbes that are able ot and can inflict noticible damage; such as invading tissues or producing toxic substances.
  3. Opportunistic pathogen
    The might normal be on our body and not hurt us but if they get the chance they will use the bodies fluid and tissues as a source of nutrients if a barrior on the body is breached.
  4. mutualism
    both partners benefit from the relationship
  5. Commensalism
    one partner benefits while the other is unaffected
  6. parasitism
    the parasite benefits at the expense of the host
  7. acute infection
    are by symptoms that have a rapid onset but last only a short time (strep throat)
  8. chronic infection
    develop slowly and last for months or years (tuberculosis)
  9. latent infection
    a latent infection are never completely eliminated, the microbe continues to exist in host tissues, often within host cells, for years without causing symptoms. It there is a decrease in immune response, the latent infection mat become reactivated and symptomatic.
  10. localized infection
    is limited to a small area (like a boild caused by S. aureus)
  11. systemic infection
    is when the infectious agent is spread throughtout the body (measles)
  12. bacteremia
    the bacteria are circulating in the blood stream
  13. septicemia
    an acute, life threatening illness caused by infectious agens or their products circulating in the bloodstream
  14. signs
    objective evidence (you can see it) such as a rash, pus formation and swelling.
  15. symptom
    (its what percieved by the patient) such as pain and nausea
  16. incubation period
    is the interval between the introduction of an organism to a susceptible host and the onset of illness
  17. prodromal period
    Early vague symptoms of disease sich as malaise and heachache.
  18. period of illness
    follows the incubation period, during this period a person will experiance signs and symptoms of the disease.
  19. period of convalescence
    as the illness subsides, it's the stage of recuperation and recovery from the disease
  20. virrulence
    the degree of pathogenicity of an organism
  21. virulence factor
    when an organism is described as highly virulent is more likely to cause disease, particulary severe disease.
  22. mechanism of pathogenicity
    the methods that disease causing microbes use to invade the hosts defenses and then cause damage.
  23. adhesin molecule
    these are usually located at hte tips of pili, they are filamentous protein structures found on the surface of the cell, the can bind to mucous and colonize there
  24. siderophores
    an iron binding molecule which compete with the hosts proteins; others are able to use the iron bound to the hosts proteins
  25. Coagulase
    non enzymatic production synthesize that clots plasma
  26. Hyaluronidase
    degrades hyluronix acid, a component of host tissue that helps hold the cells together.
  27. The A portion of the AB toxin molecule does...
  28. 3 types of mucous membranes
    respitatory tract, gastrointestional tract and genitourinary tract
  29. how does lysozyme work as a antimicrobial substance?
    it's found in tears and saliva, this enzyme breaks down peptidoglycan so that the bacteria cell wall gets broken down and defensless.
  30. lactoferrin
    found in mucous milk and saliva and some phagocytic cells, it's a iron binding protein that takes iron away from the microbe so it can;t create what is needed for them to grow.
  31. How does bacterial flora prevent pathogens from growing in our body?
    • normal microbes can bind to receptors and attachment site found on our cells. This prevents pathogens from binding to these same receptors.
    • normal microbes can take in nutrients, therfore making them less available for pathogens
    • some normal microbes make substance that are toxic to the pathogenic bacteria.
  32. megakaryocytes
    platelets (which are derived from megakaryocytes) are involved in blood clotting
  33. phagocytosis
    is the process where a cell takes in (and possibly) digests a small cell or particle. They release nictric oxide (NO) and free oxygen radials to help kill a cell
  34. histamine
    histamine causes blood vessels to become dilated and leaky (ie histamine makes it possible for fluid to escape blood vessels) this allows cells and molecules of the immune system to rush towards infected tissue.
  35. chemokines
    help preform chemo taxis (brings the cell to a given location) and it;s a type of granulocyte that contains histamines which are involved in allergic responses
  36. interferons (IFN)
    helps get rid of viral attacks (there is more detail about this one in the lecture)
  37. interleukins (IL)
    helps the lymphocytes get going on the immunity
  38. Tumor necrosis factor (TNF)
    killling of target cells and inflammation response and cytotoxity of some tumor cells.(We have lecture on this so we need to know some details on this one)
  39. List the 3 types of granulocytes
    basophil, neutrophil and eosinophil
  40. Lsit the 2 types of monocytes
    macrophage and dendritic cell
  41. list the 3 types of lymphocytes
    B cell, T cell and a natural killer cell
  42. neutrophils
    contains granules that are filled with digestive enzymes, they are the most abundant type of granulocyte and they phagocytize bacteria and damaged cells. They are the first type of cell to leave the blood vessels to fight pathogens in a nerby infected tissue
  43. basophils
    type of granulocyte that contains histamines and is involved in allergic response
  44. mast cells
    contains histamines and is involed with allergic reactions but is NOT classifies as a granulocyte
  45. eosinophil
    plays a role in elminating parasitic worms
  46. dendritic cells
    takes in portions of baccteris and shows it off to the cells of the immune systems (in order to activate those cells)
  47. macrophages
    phagocytize bacteria and damaged cells, they have toll like receptors (which only lipoplysaccarides, proteins on flagella, peptidoglycan and a unique DNA sequence to bacteria can bind to it)
  48. chemotaxis
    this is what a phgocytes migrate towards an area that contains unwatned microbes. The migration can be triggered when phagocytes recieve cytokine signals from other white blood cells
  49. Opsonin
    is a molecule that can bind to the surface of a baceterial cell, therefore encouragingg a phagocyte to eat the bacterial cell. examples of opsomins are antibidies and complement proteins
  50. phagocyte
    after a phagocyte takes in a bacterium or forgein partical
  51. phagosome
    after a bacterial cell (or foreign partical) is entrapped in a memmbrane. This while structure (the membrane the the trapped bacterium) is called a phagosome. phagosomes are found inside a phagocyte
  52. phagolysosome
    a structure formed when a phagocyte lysosome fuses with its phagosome
  53. lysosomes
    is basically a bunch of digestive enzymes enclosed in a membrane. lysosomes are found in ohagocytes (as well as other cells in the body) phagocytes kill their ingested bacteria by fusing the lysosome with the phagosomes (which contains the bacterium) basically what this does is dump digestive enzymes all over the bacterium killing it
  54. list the 4 cardinal signs of inflammation
    heat redness swelling and pain
  55. pus
    is composed of dead white blood cells (mostly neutrophils) and dead bacteria
  56. How does fever slow down infection?
    • fever rasies the bodiess temperature so the infecting microbes are no longer at optimal growth temp.
    • rasing the temp helps activate phagocytes and enzymes that are involved in the immune response
  57. Lymph
    Lymph is the portion of the blood that leaks out of blood vessels to bathe the body's tissues. The lymph fluid primarily contains white blood cells and antibodies. It may also contain foreign microbes (that will hopefully be destroyed by the white blood cells)
  58. Organs that act as the hub of the lymphatic system
    lymph nodes, spleen, tonsils, adenoids, appendix and Peyer's pathches (located next to the small intestine)
  59. antigens
    are molecules that can be recognized by cells of the adaptive immune system. A antigen can recognize and bind to multiple types of antibodies or T cells. antigens attach to the variable region of an antibody molecule
  60. epitopes
    the specific portion of a molecule that can be bound by a particular antibody or T cell. A single epitope can be regognized and bound to only one type of antibody or T cell
  61. Clonaal selection
    When one of those B or T cells recognizes and binds to a specific epitope
  62. clonal expansion
    Whenever a B cell or T cell binds to it's specific epitope that B and t cell begins dividing to produce many clones of itself
  63. plasma cells
    are antibodies making factories, they make antibodies that can be secreted into the blood stream
  64. memory cells
    stick around even after the infection with a pathogen has been cleared. IT the same pathogen is encountered sometime in the future, the memory cells quickly recognize it and become activated to prevent it from causing another infection.
  65. aggulination
    antibodies can corral several antigens so that a phagocyte may come ingest them
  66. opsonization
    anfter an antibody attaches to a pathogen it may attract phagocytes
  67. neutralization
    when a antibody binds to a pathogen, it may prevent that pathogen from binding
  68. Helper T cells
    turn on and off other cells of the immune system
  69. cyototoxic
    destroy cells that are infected with viruses
  70. cytokines
    cellf og out immune system can release messanger molecules that help activate or deactivate other cells of the immune system they are called the messenger molecules of the immune system
  71. cell mediated immunity
    The arm of the immune system that involved T cells and all the things that occur after T cells recognize a pathogen)
  72. humoral immunity
    the arm of the immune system that involves antibodies and all of the things taht occur afer the antibodies attach to a pathogen
  73. IgA
    It's the most abundant type of immunoglobulin found on mucous membranes and in secretions (saliva and tears) (looks like 2 Ys connected at the stems)
  74. IgD
    Plats a role in helping B cells mature (looks just like one Y)
  75. IgE
    Found on the surface of mast cells and basophils (allows mast cell and basophils to attach to antigens) (looks like a single Y)
  76. IgG
    • Capable of inititating the cloassical pathway complement activation
    • Immunoglobulin that can most readily be transferred from mother to fetus (via placenta)
    • Immunoglobulin that can circulate the longest before becoming degraded
    • Most abundant type of immunoglobulin found in serum (looks like a single Y)
  77. IgM
    • Capable of initiating the classical pathway of complement activation
    • immunoglobulin thats most effective at agglutinating antigens
    • type of immunoglobulin that;s produced first when the immune system first encounters antigen (looks like a cluster fuck of Y's )
  78. which type of immunity would provide a more immediate effect: Active or passive?
    Passive immunity results when an individual is given antibodies that were made by another person/animal. This means that this individual would not have to wait for his own B cells to proved antibodies after being exposed to a pathogen.
  79. Which type of immunity would provide longer lasting effects: active or passive?
    Passive immunity lasts only as long as the injected antibodies last (antibodies like all proteins eventually break down) On the other hand, if the individual has active immunity, it means that he has B cells that are producing antibodies. As lons as the indivdual owns these B cells he will be protected against the corresponding pathogen
  80. B cells form and mature in the _____ ?
    Bone marrow
  81. T cells for in the ____ and mature in the _____?
    Bone marrow thymus
  82. colonial deletion
    where potentially dangerous B and T cells are eliminated suring development
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Micro Exam 3
Microbiology exam flashcards for gines class
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