_______________ are defined as a child's inability or refusal to eat or drink sufficient quantities to maintain nutritional status regardless of etiology.
A typically developing infant triples their weight in the _________ year and gains _ pounds per year for __-__ years.
children can start eating solid food by ________ years old.
Pediatricians are usually the first to identify this disorder:
Height/weight ratios are used to determine ___________
"___________" means having a height-weight ratio below the ____th percentile.
failure to thrive;
The primary causes of _________________ tend to be organic, such as: structural, metabolic, and GI abnormalities, mechanical obstructions, dysphagia, chronic illness, and GER.
Secondary causes of ___________________ are behavioral and include avoidance of pain or aversive stimuli associated with mealtimes, access to attention or tangibles, or skill deficits with feeding (swallowing, chewing, self-feeding).
Most cases of Feeding Disorder are a combination of ___________ and ______________ causes.
organic and behavioral
The prevalence of feeding disorders in children with ID is up to _______%
Feeding disorders are classified by food ________, food _______ by type/texture, and oral _____ ______.
Behaviors associated with ____________ are spitting food, hitting/throwing food and untesils, covering mouth, vomiting and tantrums.
Treatment for ______________ include reinforcement for food acceptance, non-removal of spoon, eliminating grazing, shaping types and textures, and ignoring tantrums.
Research demonstrates that behavioral treatment of feeding disorders are __________ for children.
mostly very effective..& can lead to taking children off feeding tubes
A majority of parents found feeding disorder treatment ____________ and ________ to implement.
____________ is defined as repeated voiding of urine during day (diurnal) or night (nocturnal), into bed or clothes, whether involuntary or intentional.
_____________ is repeated passage of feces into places not appropriate for that purpose, whether involuntary or intentional.
To be diagnosed with enuresis, the behavior must occur ______ a month for children 5-6 years old and ____ per month for older children. Child MUST be at least __ years old.
5 years old
To be diagnosed encopresis, the behavior must occur _____ per month or more for at least ____ months. Child MUST be at least __ years old.
4 years old
Enuresis and encopresis do NOT involve the presense of_______________
Normal bladder control is established at ___ years old.
Normal bowel control is established at ___ years old.
The prevalence of Enuresis in Non-ID children: age 5: 7: 9: 12-14:
prevalence of Encopresis in non-ID children: age 3: 4: 5:
5:15% 7:7% 9:3% 12-14:1-2% ;
3:75% are clean 4:86% are clean 5: 93% are clean!
Cultural trends suggest that potty training is occuring ____ than in previous decades. Possible explanations include: increased ownership of washing machines, disposable diapers, parent schedules, and Dr. Spock style parenting.
The effects of _______________ include rashes, bed sores, constipation, urinary tract infection, bowel damages, soreness, negative care-giver-child interactions, and social avoidance.
In institutions, _____________ was associated with group size, ease of access to bathrooms, negative modeling, behavioral states, and passivity.
Medication, anxiety, and caffeine have been associated with _______________.
In treatment, fluid intake would be increased for __________. For __________, fluids would be restricted before bedtime.
An important part of _____________ is assessing and teaching dressing skills.
For treating _______________, a bell and bad device has been effective
The simplest form of toilet training is _______________
__________________________________ means having an individual practive the correct response ( an appropriate alt. behavior) multiple times upon occurrence of a mistake (or inappropropriate behavior).
Positive Practice Overcorrection
______________ is useful when it is unclear if the misbehavior is a skill or motivational deficit.
positive practice is useful for _________ deficits because it reduces practice time, determines problems with the response performance, and allows emphasis on the correct response.
positive practice is useful for _________ deficits because it increases the likelihood of the correct response due to the adeded effort associated with the misbehavior, decreases carelessness, and emphasis on the correct behavior.
No reinforcement should be allowed during ___________
the duration of positive practice depends on the __________ and ________ severity of the misbehavior.
frequency and severity
______________ is having an individual restore an environment to a better condition than prior to the occurence of the misbehavior.
___________ can teach a person responsibility, independence, and social restitution.
__________ guidance can be used if the individual is non-compliant.
The effectiveness of overcorrection is _____________ when it is a routine consequence for misbehavior.
_________ is defined as difficulties in initiating or maintaining sleep for at least a month which causes significant distress or impairment in social, occupational, and other important areas of functioning.
The prevalence of sleep problems in children with autism is _____-____ % (most likely on test)
______________ refers to normal daily activities that occur close to bedtime. Examples of poor ___________ include exercise, watching t.v. or playing on the computer.
__________________ disorder refers to child behavior problems at bedtime that result from failure of parents to set limits on the child's sleep and associated behaviors.
The human circadian rhythm is a __ hour cycle. Therefore, we follow external cues to "reset" our internal clocks. this is known as _______
__________________ disorder is characterized of a child needing some object (such as a pacifier) or activity (being rocked) in order to fall asleep.
sleep onset association d/o
Sleep __________ can lead to irritability, aggression, hyperactivity, attention deficits, memory problems, anxiety, depression, obsessions, headaches, fatigue, obesity, GI upset, enuresis, infections, motor problems, and delayed growth.
There are two types of sleep: _______ and _________. A person transitions back and forth from each state.
NREM (Not REM?)
________ sleep is associated with dreaming and later in the sleep cycle;
________ sleep is deep sleep that is usually associated earlier in the sleep cycle.
NREM (Not REM sleep?)
_____________ are associated with Deep sleep in the 1st half of the night: piercing screams and intense fear
____________ are associated with early morning (In REM sleep) and arousal based on a frightening dream.
___________ extinction is widely researched and shown effective but can be difficult for parents to implement.
Establishing a healthy bedtime _______ is the first step in setting good sleep habits.