Anatomy

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Author:
alannaheeres
ID:
115615
Filename:
Anatomy
Updated:
2011-11-08 23:55:36
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Respiratory System
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Respiratory System
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  1. Supplies O2 & eliminates CO2
    Contains receptors for olfaction
    Produces sound
    Respiratory System
  2. Respiratory System: Conducting and Respiratory Zones
    8 of them, starts with nose
    • Nose
    • Pharynx = throat
    • Larynx = voicebox
    • Trachea = windpipe
    • Lungs
    • Bronchi = airways
    • Bronchioles
    • Ends at the terminal bronchioles
  3. Respiratory System: Respiratory Zone
    3 of them
    • Respiratory bronchioles
    • Alveolar ducts and sacs
    • Alveoli
  4. Skin, nasal bones, & cartilage lined with mucous membrane
    Openings called external nares or nostril
    External Nasal Structures
  5. Nose --Internal Structures
    Divided into right and left sides by nasal septum
    Nasal cavity
  6. Nose -- Internal Structures
    Anterior part is called ____ _______ , lined with few short hairs
    nasal vestibule
  7. Nose -- Internal Structure
    Roof is made up of __________
    ethmoid
  8. Nose -- Internal Structure
    Floor is _____ ________
    hard palate
  9. Nose -- Internal Structures
    What is located on the roof and upper lateral walls?
    Olfactory epithelium
  10. Nose -- Internal Structures
    Ciliated pseudostratified columnar epithelium with Goblet cells
    Muscous epithelium
  11. Nose -- Internal Structures
    Opening to pharynx
    Internal nares
  12. Nose -- Internal Structures
    Contain conchae (turbinates)
    Lateral walls
  13. Ciliated pseudostratified columnar epithelium withgoblet cells produce a moving mass of mucus
    Respiratory Epithelium
  14. Functions of the Nasal Structures:
    Olfactory epithelium
    sense of smell
  15. Functions of the Nasal Structures
    Pseudostratified ciliated columnar with goblet cells lines nasal cavity (3 functions)
    • Warms air due to high vascularity
    • Mucous moistens air & traps dust
    • Cilia move mucous towards pharynx
  16. Functions of the Nasal Structures
    Inhaled air is ____ and __________
    filtered and humidified
  17. Functions of the Nasal Structures
    Conchae
    Swirls and slow air (for warming)
  18. Functions of the Nasal Structures
    Paranasal sinuses open into nasal cavity
    – found in ethmoid, sphenoid, frontal & maxillar
    Lighten skull & resonate voice
  19. Muscular funnel-shaped tube
    Extends from internal nares to laryn
    Pharynx
  20. These are the functions of the __________:
    Passageway for food and air
    Resonating chamber for speech production
    Tonsil (lymphatic tissue) in the walls protects entryway into body
    Pharynx
  21. What are the 3 distinct regions of the pharynx?
    • 1. Nasopharynx
    • 2. Oropharynx
    • 3. Laryngopharynx
  22. What is it?
    From internal nares to soft palate
    – openings of auditory (Eustachian) tubes from middle ear cavity
    Nasopharynx
  23. What is it?
    Passageway for air only– pseudostratified ciliated columnar epithelium with goblet
    Nasopharynx
  24. What is it?
    From soft palate to epiglottis– fauces is opening from mouth into oropharynx
    Oropharynx
  25. What is it?
    Common passageway for food & air– stratified squamous epithelium
    Oropharynx
  26. What is it?
    Extends from epiglottis to esophagus
    Common passageway for food & air; ends as esophagus inferiorly– stratified squamous epithelium
    Laryngopharynx
  27. forms Adam’s apple
    Thyroid cartilage
  28. Leaf-shaped piece of elastic cartilage
    – during swallowing, larynx moves upward
    Epiglottis
  29. Bends to cover glottis
    Epiglottis
  30. Ring of cartilage attached to top of trachea
    Cricoid cartilage
  31. What are the 3 cartilage pieces of the larynx?
    • Thyroid Cartilage
    • Epiglottis
    • Cricoid cartilage
  32. Vocal cords (ventricular folds) found above
    False vocal cords
  33. Vocal cords located below false vocal cord
    True vocal cords
  34. What occurs during breathing and speech?
    Opening and closing of the vocal folds
  35. Modified sound made by the larynx
    Speech
  36. What is requred to resonate sound and make speech?
    • Pharynx
    • Mouth
    • Nasal cavity
    • Sinuses
  37. Form words
    Tongue and lips
  38. Controlled by tension on vocal folds
    Pitch
  39. Produces higher pitch
    Vocal cords pulled tight
  40. vocal folds are thicker & longer so vibrate more slowly producing a lower pitch
    male vocal cords
  41. Size is 5 in long & 1in diameter
    Extends from larynx, anterior to the esophagus andsplits into bronchi (at about T5 vertebra)
    Trachea
  42. What are the 2 layers of the trachea?
    • Mucosa
    • Hyaline cartilage
  43. Trachea:
    pseudostratified columnar with cilia & goblet
    Mucosa
  44. Trachea:
    16 to 20 C-shaped rings
    Open side facing esophagus contains trachealis m. (smooth)
    Hyaline cartilage
  45. Is anterior to the esophagus
    Trachea
  46. Histology of the Trachea:
    C-shaped structure closed by trachealis muscle
    Hyaline cartilage
  47. Splits to form primary bronchi and enter the lung at the hilus
    Trachea
  48. supply each lung
    Primary bronchi
  49. Supply each lobe of the lungs (3 right + 2 left)
    Secondary bronchi
  50. Supply each bronchopulmonary segment
    Tertiary bronchi
  51. Repeated branchings called __________ form a bronchial tree
    bronchioles
  52. Terminal bronchioles form the end of the _________ ______
    conducting portion
  53. Histology of Bronchial Tree:
    Changes from pseudostratified ciliated columnar to nonciliated simple cuboidal as it passes deeper into lungs
    Epithelium
  54. Irregular plates of cartilage replaced by rings of ______ _______ & then __________ _______
    • smooth muscle
    • connective tissue
  55. Histology of Bronchial Tree:
    Release epinephrinethat relaxes smooth muscle & dilates airways
    Sympathetic NS & Adrenal Gland
  56. Histology of Bronchial Tree
    What do asthma attacks or allergic reactions do?
    Constrict distal bronchiole smooth muscle
  57. Histology of Bronchial Tree:
    Inhale mist with chemicals that relax muscle & reduce thickness of mucus
    Nebulization therapy
  58. covers lungs --- parietal pleura lines ribcage & covers upper surface of diaphragm
    Visceral pleura
  59. Is potential space between visceral and pleura membranes
    Pleural cavity
  60. Oblique & horizontal fissure in right lung results in ___ lobes
    3
  61. Oblique fissure only in left lung produces ___ lobes
    2
  62. Gross Anatomy of Lungs (4 parts)
    • Base
    • Apex
    • costal surface
    • cardiac notch
  63. Mediastinal Surface of Lungs:
    Primary bronchi, blood vessels & airways enter lungs at _______
    hilus
  64. Forms root of lungs
    Mediastinal surface of lungs
  65. Structures within the Respiratory Zone:
    • 1. Capillary network
    • 2. Respiratory bronchiole– simple squamous
    • 3. Alveolar ducts
    • 4. Alveolar sacs and individual alveoli– sac is 2 or more alveoli sharing a common opening
  66. Cells Types of the Alveoli:
    simple squamous cells where gas exchange occurs
    Type I alveolar cells
  67. Cells Types of the Alveoli:
    Secrete alveolar fluid containing surfactant (reduce surface tension in the alveolus)
    Type II alveolar cells (septal cells)
  68. Cells Types of the Alveoli:
    – wandering macrophages remove debris
    Alveolar dust cells
  69. Double Blood Supply to the Lungs:
    Enters pulmonary trunk from the right ventricle
    Deoxygenated blood
  70. Double Blood Supply to the Lungs:
    Carry deoxygenated blood to therespiratory zone for gaseous exchange
    Pulmonary arteries
  71. Double Blood Supply to the Lungs:
    Carry oxygenated blood from the lungs to the left ventricle of the heart
    Pulmonary veins
  72. Double Blood Supply to the Lungs:
    Branch from the aorta to supply oxygenated blood to lung tissue
    Bronchial arteries
  73. Double Blood Supply to the Lungs:
    From lung tissue returns to theheart in both bronchial veins and pulmonary veins
    Deoxygenated blood
  74. Systemic Circulation:
    All systemic arteries branch from the _____
    aorta
  75. Drain into the superior or inferior vena cava or coronary sinus to return to the right-side of heart
    All systemic veins
  76. Breathing or Pulmonary Ventilation:
    Air moves into lungs when pressure inside lungs is ____ than atmospheric pressure
    less
  77. Breathing or Pulmonary Ventilation:
    Air moves out of the lungs when pressure inside lungs is _______ than atmospheric pressure
    greater
  78. As the size of closed container decreases, pressure inside is increased
    Pressure is inversely proportional to volume
    Boyle's Law
  79. Dimensions of the Chest Cavity:
    Contraction of intercostal muscles expands or contracts _________
    ribcage
  80. Dimensions of the Chest Cavity:
    Flattens the dome and increases thevertical dimension of the chest
    Contraction of the diaphragm
  81. Always subatmospheric (756 mm Hg, Atmospheric is 760 mmHg)
    Pleural cavity
  82. As diaphragm contracts volume ________ and intrathoracicpressure decreases even more (754 mm Hg)
    increases
  83. Parietal & visceral pleura held close together but do not _______ (pleural fluid)
    stick
  84. Controlled by neurons in pons & medulla
    Respiratory muscles
  85. Role of the Respiratory Center:
    What are the 3 groups of neurons?
    • 1. medullary rhythmicity (in medulla oblongata)
    • 2. Pneumotaxic (inhibits inspiration, short breaths)
    • 3. Apneustic centers (prolonged inspiration, long deep breaths)
  86. Influences by ________:
    Voluntarily alter breathing patterns
    Limitations are buildup of CO2 & H+ in blood
    Inspiratory center is stimulated by increase in either
    Cortical Influences
  87. Chemical Regulation of Respiration:
    Respond to changes in H+ or pCO2
    Hypercapnia = slight increase in pCO2 is noticed
    Central chemoreceptors in medulla
  88. Chemical Regulation of Respiration:
    respond to changes in H+ , pO2 or PCO2
    Aortic body---in wall of aorta
    Carotid bodies--in walls of common carotid arteries
    Peripheral chemoreceptors
  89. Smokers Lowered Respiratory Efficiency:
    Constricts terminal bronchioles
    Nicotine
  90. Smokers Lowered Respiratory Efficiency:
    in smoke binds to hemoglobin
    Carbon monoxide
  91. Smokers Lowered Respiratory Efficiency:
    in smoke cause excess mucus secretion
  92. Smokers Lowered Respiratory Efficiency:
    in time destroys elastic fibers in lungs & leads to ________
    emphysema

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