Payment system set by the International Air Transport Association (IATA) worldwide to process, supervise and regulate payments by travel agents to airlines
Fee paid to an agent by a supplier for transacting a piece of busines or performing a service, usually expressed as a percentage of the transaction value.
Placing maximum ceiling on individual commission payments, usually after lowering the previous rate.
Computer reservation system (CRS)
System set up by airlines to automate bookings and reservations of airline seats and then "licensed" to a travel agency or tour operator for use in-house.
Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR)
The promotion of corporate good citizenship when a private company or an industry sets policies that work to prevent or minimize environmental damage and improves the economy and well-being of people.
Cut a middleman out of a distribution/selling process.
Tours designed to contribute to the conservation of the sites visited. Ecotourism generally considers local opinion and tries to assist in the preservation of local customs and ways of life.
Services provided by travel intermediaries in exchange for which the intermediary charges the buyer a fee rather than being compensated by a commission from the supplier of the product sold. Comparable to fees charged by other professionals for advice.
Frequent flyer programme/points
Loyalty programmes set up by airlines to reward frequent flyers with "points" for repeated usage of their product. These "points" can then be redeemed for additional travel at no further cost or other rewards like hotel stays or car-rentals.
Global distribution system (GDS)
What computer reservation systems became after the airlines began making them available globally and also included other features like hotels, car rentals and other products.
Gross domestic product (GDP)
The market value of a country's output attributable to factors of production located in the country's territory.
General sales agent (GSA)
A travel intermediary who becomes an appointed exclusive distributor for a particular travel product in a particular region or country. Usually acts as that product's full representative and gets an overriding commission for meeting sales targets and servicing sales agents.
Warnings posted by governments to their citizens about travelling to specific destinations, usually in the aftermath of political problems, weather disturbances or health-scares.
Inbound tour operators
Companies that handle and operate the tours coming into a country, as sent by the outbound tour operators from the dispatching country.
Holidays given as a reward to company executives for meeting sales or productivity targets. Usually reqquire higher standards of services and facilities than just regular tours available from travel agents.
Basic rates quoted by product sellers to wholesalers or tour operators, which do not include taxes, service charges or commissions. They usually leave the wholesalers or tour operators free to add own mark-up.
Outbound tour operators
companies which operate outbound tours from a country; usually, are also wholesalers.
Product with a short lifespan. A vegetable or fruit may last a day or two before "perishing"; in the travel industry, a seat that goes unused today has "perished";whereas a book or piece of equipment may remain on the shelf for months before losing its value.
Share proportionately according to an exactly calculable factor; to divide to distribute or assess proportionately
Goods or services used to satisfy demand
Any initiative that aims to create employment and income generation with the least harmful impact on natural ecosystems and local cultures.
Tour company that combines various components of the travel industry such as hotels, airlines and local attractions, into a "package" for a sale by retailers.
Travel & entertainment costs
The costs incurred by company eecutives on business trips for travel, accommodation, communication, and entertainment of clients or customers.
An administrative and functional structure overseeing a number of smaller administrative units.
Unique Selling Proposition
An element of a product or service that offers a specific benefit, is unique to one supplier, and is able to attract and retain customers.
Travel which includes volunteering to work on a project that will improve a destination's ecological or social well-being.
Merchant middleman who sells chiefly to retailers, other merchants, etc. for resale or business use.
the average weather over an extended period of time
The lateral movement of continents resulting from motion of the earth's crustal plates
the major land masses of the world
the study of ow geography influences people's behavior, customs and habits.
the characteristics of a society including its language, religion, politics, art, food, customs and related elements that shape and distinguish it from other societies
Daylight savig time
a time of year in certain regions in the world when clocks are set forward to extend daylight into evening hours
a location that a traveller chooses to visit
the study of all of the properties and characteristics of a location that influence travel.
Elapsed travel time
the actual time spent travelling from one destination to another,.
an occurrence, either positive or negative, that can disproportionately affect travel to a geographic area.
an occurrence, either positive or negative, that can disproportionately affect travel to a geographic area.
Greenwich mean time (GMT)
the time at Greenwich, England
International date line
an imaginary line that is both 12 hours ahead of and 12 hours behind GMT.
the period during which tourism is at its lowest level.
the period during which tourism is at its highest level.
the study of the world's natural terrain and features.
an imaginary line running through Greenwich, England that connects the north and south poles.
the period during which tourism is between low season and peak season
a predictable combination of characteristics and qualities that describe why, how and when people travel.
Universal time coordinated (UTC)
another term for Greenwich Mean Time (GMT)
Accidental Death Benefit
An amount of insurance, stated in the policy, that is payable when the proximate cause of death is accidental in nature, e.g. death by heart failure resulting from an automobile accident would be considered an accidental death.
Minimum or maximum ages established by insurers for eligibility for certain kinds of insurance offered, typically life, health and disability insurance.
A request for insurance. This may be done verbally, in writing or by using a printed form and becomes part of the insurance contract.
Baggage and Personal Effects Insurace
Insures against loss of the insured's luggage and personal effects. Often forms part of a travel insurance package policy where coverage is ecess over that provided by others.
The person designated by the insured to receive policy proceeds, in the event of the death of the insured.
The amount payable to the insured person by the insurance company as described in the insurance policy.
An agreement between two countires or states.
A further injection after the initial vaccination and that extends the period that an individual remains immune against the disease.
the part of an aircraft in which passengers are seated.
A non-refundable amount charged to the traveller for cancelling the trip proior to the origin departure date. This penalty is insurable by trip cancellation insurance if the trip is cancelled for reasons listed in the insurance policy. e.g. hte insured traveller is sick or a close family member has died.
A procedure that all passengers go through before receiving a boarding card and being permitted to go into the departure lounge and wait to board a flgith.
Check- in involves an examination of documents (passport, ticket and visa), issue of a boarding card and acceptance of luggage by the airline.
A request for payment by an insured person according to the insurance policy
An insure person who make a claim after suffering a loss.
Conditions of an Insurance Policy
The general conditions or requirements for insurance, including how the policy can be cancelled and what the insured should be in the event of a loss.
Contract of Insurance
(the 6 essential elements)
offer and acceptance
parties to the contract must be legally capable of contracting
utmost good faith
Amount of protection purchased
statements, signed by the insured, promising that information given by him is true
The amount paid by the insured client when submitting a claim.
This means being sent out of a country or being refused entry. Deportation results when an individual arrives at a port of a country that he/she is not eligible to enter. The individual may not posses the valid documents such as visas or health certificates. Deportation may occur after entering a country if the visitor violates local laws or the conditions of his/her visa.
Refers to goods sold at airports, on which customs duty is not levied.
The start date of an insurance policy, or the date that additional coverage begins.
Expenses that can be claimed from (and paid by) the insurer.
A document that changes part of an insurance policy/contract.
Risks and emergencies not covered and paid by the insurance policy.
Individuals not living in their original homeland.
The date on which the insurance coverage ends.
The part of an aircraft in which luggage and cargo is transported.
The International Air Transport Association
Refers to a country or area within a country where infectious diseases such as yellow fever or cholera exist or have recently existed.
Any accidental bodily injury
A contract in which the insurer agrees to reimburse the insured for loss caused by specified risks.
the person or group being protected by an insurance policy.
The insurance company providint insurance coverage.
A maximum amout of money the insurance company will pay on a permitted claim.
Term referring to longer flight journeys
Permanent Disability Benefit
This coverage is for severe injuries received while travelling - such as a loss of limbs or damage to eyes.
a legal contract that includes details of the insurance coverage including all clauses, riders, endorsements and renewals.
A medical condition that exists prior to travelling and may limit or deny insurance coverage.
The amount paid by the insured for coverage under an insurance contract for a specified period of time.
Isolation imposed to prevent infection
Passengers are normally required to telephone carrier and (re)confirm their intention to fly.
the extension of an insurance policy for another term
A benefit not included in the standard insurance plan, but can be added by paying an additional premium
A potential for loss
A term that refers to short flights - usually domestic flights and flights between neighboring countries.
Standard legal conditionsin an insurance policy
a term that refers to an intermediate destination visited between the city of origin and the ultimate destination.
An intermediary stop en route between the passenger's origin and ultimate destination.
Travel Insurance Application
The printed or online form provided by a Travel Agent confirming the purchase of travel insurance.
Trip Interruption Insurance
Provides coverage from the time travel commences until the return home. This insurance reimburses losses caused by returning earlier or later than planned for reasons allowed by the insurance policy
Written confirmation that one intentionally refused to purchase travel insurance
Wild flora and fauna
Refers to various vegetation and species.
Passenger name record (PNR)q
A unique computerised file. A PNR is created by the booking agent and is used to communicate passenger details and inteded flight ininerary as well as other requests and information relevant to the carrier. Also referred to as a booking or reservation.
Reimbursement to the purchaser of all, or a portion, of a fare for an unused service.
The period during which a tickt is valid for travel, as determined by the fare that is paid.
The term refers to a traveller who has no reservation but is ready to travel on a fully booked flight who waits to see if a seat becomes availbale (usually due to a no- show)
Area at an airport where the formalities for departing and arriving passengers take place
Ticket on departure (TOD)
A procedure by which a treavel agent makes special arrangements for a passenger's ticekt ot be issued by airline staff at the departure airport.
Process for transporting passengers from one terminal to another, or perhaps from an airport to a local hotel, usually by bus.
Unaccompanied minor (UM)
A child, up to the age of 12, who travels alone, not accompanied by an adult.
Passengers awaiting confirmation of a requested flight(s), that is/are currently fully booked.