GENE REGULATION

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datgrl_honey
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115637
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GENE REGULATION
Updated:
2011-11-09 12:23:15
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GENE REGULATION
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GENE REGULATION
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  1. CELLULAR DIFFERENTIATION
    WHEN CELLS BEOME DIFFERENT TYPES

    CERTAIN GENES ARE TUNED ON/OFF

    CELLS BECOME SPECALIZED IN STRUCTURE/FUNCTION
  2. GENE EXPRESSION
    GENE THAT IS TUNED ON IS TRANSCRIBED INTO RNA

    INFORMATIONS FLOWS FROM GENES TO PROTEMS GENOTYPE TO PHENOTYPE
  3. DIFFERENTIATION OF CELLS REGULATED THRU
    • DIFFERENTIAL GENE EXPRESSION
    • ENVIRONMENTAL SIGNALS
  4. FERTILIZED EGG
    IS A TOTIPOTENT CELL IT CAN GIVE RISE TO ALL OTHER CELL TYPES OF ORGANISM

    CELLS DIVIDE BECOME TERMINED THEN DIFFERENTIATE THEY LOSE TIPOTENCY

    CELL BECOMS SPECIALIZED (AS A NERVE CELLS) ITS DIFFERENTIATED
  5. DIFFERENTIATION RESULTS FROM DIFFERENTIAL GENE EXPRESSION
    RESULTS FROM REGUATION OF

    • PRETRANSCRIPTIONAL
    • TRANSCRIPTION
    • POSTTRASCRIPTION EVENTS
    • TRANSLATION
  6. DIFFERENTIATED CELLS
    STILL CONTAIN A COMPLETE SET OF DNA

    MAY ACT LIKE OTHER ELLS IF THEIR PATERN OF GENE EXPRESSION IS ALTERED
  7. GENE EXPRESION
    REGULATE IN A CELL LIKE PLUMBING

    LOT OF POTENTIAL SHUT OFF POINTS
  8. GENE REGULATION PRO/EUK
    PROKARYOTES- HAVE SIMPLE WAY OF TURNING ON/OFF GENES

    EUKARYOTES-MORE COMPLEX
  9. GENE REGULATION-PROKAYOTES
    BACTERIA CAN ALGENE EXPRESSION FOR METABOLISM BASED ON ENVROMENTAL FACTORS

    HAVE SEQUENCES OF DNA CALLED CONTROL SEQUENCES
  10. GENE REG PRO-CONTROL SEQUENCES
    STRETCHES OF DNA THAT CORDINAT GENE EXPRESSON
  11. GENE REG PRO- OPERON
    CLUSTER OF GENES WITH RELATED FUNCTONS INCLUDING THE CONTROL SEQUENCES

    CONTAINS PROMOTER & OPERATOR

    • TURNED OFF (DEFAULT WHEN NO LACTOSE PRESENT)
    • ON (WHEN REPRESSOR INACTIVATED BY LACTOSE
  12. GENE REG PRO- PROMOTER
    • CONTROLS SEQUENCE
    • SITE WHERE TRANSCRIPTION ENZYME INITIATES TRANSCRIPTION
  13. GENE REG PRO- OPERATOR
    DNA SEQUENCE BETWEEN THE PROMOTER AND THE ENZYMES GENES

    ACTS AS AN ON/OFF SWITCH FOR GENES
  14. GENE REG EUKARYOTE
    • REGULATE THEIR GENES SEVERAL WAYS
    • NUCLEUS
    • CYTOPLASM
  15. GENE REG EUK- NUCLEUS
    REGULATION OF DNA PACKING

    INITIATIONOF TRANSCRIPTION

    RNA PROCESSING
  16. GENE REG EUK- CYTOPLASM
    BREAKDOWN OF MRNA

    REGULATION OF TRASLATION

    BY ALTERING PROTEINS

    BY BREAKND DOWN PROTEINS
  17. NUCLEUS-DNA PACKING
    CELLS MAY USE FOR GENE REGULATION/LONG TERM INACTIVATIONS OF GENES
  18. NUCLEUS-DNA PACKING 4 FORMS
    X CHROMOSOME INACTIVATION

    DNA BINDING MOTIFS

    NUCLEOSOME ARRANGEMENT

    DNA METHYLATION
  19. X CHROMOSOME INACTIVATION
    • SEEN IN FEMALE MAMMALS
    • INVOLVES ONE ENTIRE X CHROMO IN EACH SOMATIC CELL BEING ALMOST ENTIRELY INACTIVE
    • BARR BODIES
  20. DNA BINDING MOTIFS
    PROTEINS THAT HAVE BENDS IN THER PROTEIN CHAINS TO LET THEM FIT INTO GROOVES OF DNA DOUBLE HELIX

    • HELIX-TURN-HELIX MOTIF
    • ZINC FINGER MOTIF
    • LUCINEZIPPER MOTIF
  21. NUCLEUS
    REGULATORY PROTEINS BIN TO THESE MOTIFS WHICH ALLOWS AN ADDITIONAL POINT OF GENE REGULATION
  22. NUCLEUS-NUCLEOSOME ARRANGEMENT
    NUCLEOSOMES CAN BE POSIIONED TO BLOCK PROMOTERS

    TRNSCRIPTION FACTORS ARE BLOCKED AND TRANSCRIPTION DOES NOT BEGIN HOWEVER THEY CANNOT BLOCK RNA POLYMERASE
  23. NUCLEUS-DNA METHYLATION
    A METHYL GROUP IS ADDED TO CYTOSINE

    PROTEIN BINDS TO METHYLATED DNA AND PREVENTS TRANSCRIPTION ACTIVATORS FROM BINDING TO THE DNA
  24. NUCLEUS- REGULATION TRANSCRIPTION
    EAK CONTROL MECHANISM INVOLVE REGULATORY PROTEINS

    • EACH EUK GEN:
    • HAS ITS OWN PROMOTER AND OTHER CONTROL SEQUENCES

    • MAY HAVE REPRESSORS TURN GENES OFF
    • MAY HAVE ACTIVATORS TURNS GENS ON
  25. EUK-TRANSCRIPTION FACTORS
    PROTEINS THAT TURN N EUK GENES
  26. EUK-ENHANCERS
    ARE BOUND WITH ACTIVATOR PROTEINS AS THE FIRST STEP IN INITIATING TRANSCRIPTION

    LOCATE QUITE FAR AWAY FROM THE PROMOTER

    ACT BY BINDING PROTEINS THAT STIMULATE OR INHIBIT TRANSCRIPTION
  27. EUK-SILENCERS
    ARE REPRESSOR PROTEINS THA MAY INHIBIT THE START OF TRANSCRIPTION
  28. NUCLEUS-RNA PROCESSING INCLUDES
    • ADDITION OF CAP AND TAIL TO RNA
    • REMOVAL OF ANY INTRONS
    • SPLICING TOGETHER OF DIFF EXONS
  29. CYTOPLASM-BREAKDOWN MRNA
    • DIFF LIFETIMES
    • ALL EVENTUALLY BROKEN DOWN PART RECYCLED
  30. CYTOPLASM- REGULATION OF TRANSCRIPTION
    MAY BE REGULATED BY MANY DIFF PROTEINS
  31. CYTOPLASM- PROTEIN ALTERATIONS
    • OCCURS AFTER TRANSLATION
    • INVOLVE CUTTING POLYPEPTIDESINTO SMALLER ACTIVE FINAL PRODUCTS
  32. CYTOPLAMS- PROTEIN BREAKDOWNS
    SELECTIVE BREAKDOWN OF PROTEINS ANOTHER CONTROL MECHANISM OPERATING AFTER TRANSLATION
  33. ENVIROMENTAL REGULATION
    • RECEPTORS, G PROTEINS
    • SIGNAL TRANSCUTION PATHWAYS

    • OCCURS DURING DEVELOPMENT
    • CONTAINS COMPLETE SET OF DNA

    ACT LIKE OTHER CELLS IF PATTERN OF GEN EXPRESSION IS ALTERED
  34. differentiated plant cells
    have ability to develop into a whole new organism or regrow parts of the organism
  35. REGENERATION
    REGROWTH OF LOST BODY PARTS IN ANIMALS

    MOSTLY IN AMPHIBIANS AND REPTILES
  36. NUCLEAR TRANSPLANTATION
    INVOLVES REPLACING NUCLEI EGG CELLS WITH DIFFERENTIATED CELLS

    USED TO CLONE A VARIETY OF ANIMALS
  37. DOLLY
    • CLONED 1997
    • FIRST MAMMOMAL CLONED-REPRODUCTIVE CLONING
  38. THERAPEUTIC CLONING
    PRODUCES EMBRYONIC STEM CELLS (ES CELLS)
  39. EMBRYONIC STEM CELLS
    CAN GIVE RISE TO SPECIFIC TYPES OF DIFFERENTIATED CELLS

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