Chem 32 ch. 12

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Chem 32 ch. 12
2011-11-16 10:48:42
condensation hydrolosis ester esther amide

Chem 32 ch. 12
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  1. Condensation reaction...
    When the OH from one molecule and the H from another molecule break off their respective molecules, combine to form a water molecule, and leave the remainder of their parent molecules to covalently bond at the points where the OH and H were removed.

    In a condensation reaction the H that is removed is removed from an O or an N.

    The products are a new molecule and a water molecule.
  2. What is an ether?
    An ether is the result of a condensation reaction where two molecules with alcohol groups ( OH, HO ) have an H taken from on molecule and and OH from the other molecule and their parent molecules are covalently bonded at the point where the H and OH were removed. This leaves an oxygen O atom in the middle of a carbon chain of the new molecule plus a water molecule.

    They are named by naming the alkyl groups attached to the O in alphabetical order and adding ether to the end.

    C-O-H + H-O-C --> C-O-C + H2O
  3. What is an ester?
    An ester is what you get when you take the OH off of a carboxylic acid and the H off an alcohol ( OH, HO ) and then covalently bond their parent molecules. A water molecule is also produced.

    O=C-O-H + H-O-C --> O=C-O + H2O
  4. What is an amide?

    An amide is the product of a molecule with a carboxylic acid group ( O=C-O-H ) losing its O-H and another molecule with an amine group ( NH2 ) losing an H and the parent molecules covalently bonding at the point where the OH and H were removed. Water is also a product.

    Amides are going to have the remnants of a carboxylic acid in them, the carbonyl group ( O=C ) will be there. If the molecule doesnt have that right next to the nitrogen then it's an amine.
  5. What is a polymer?
    A large molecule made by linking smaller molecules.
  6. How to name polymers?
    Find the repeating part of the polymer, name it, then at poly in front of it.
  7. Amino acids have a carboxylic acid group and an amine group which can lose HO and H respectively and chain together to form proteins.
    • Amino acids have a carboxylic acid group and an amine group which can
    • lose HO and H respectively and chain together to form proteins.

    They are named in the same way otherpolymers are named.
  8. What is a copolymer?
    A copolymer is a compound made of two "repeatable" molecules chained together in alternating fashion. The O-H on one molecule comes off and the N-H or O-H on another molecule loses its H and the two bond together.
  9. What is a phosphoester?
    A phosphoester is a result of a phosphorylation reaction where a molecule with a phosphate group ( O=P-O-H ) loses its O-H and another molecule with an O-H or N-H comes along, loses its H and the two molecules combine forming an O=P-O phosphoester group.
  10. What are amino acids?
    Amino acids are molecules that have an amino group ( NH2 ) and a carboxylic acid group ( O=C-O-H ).
  11. How are proteins made?
    Proteins are large molecules made up of smaller amino acids chained together. The amino group on one amino acid loses an H and the carboxylic acid group on another amino acid loses an O-H and the two bond where they lost atoms. A long chain of different amino acids connecting to each other is a protein.
  12. What is hydrolysis?
    Hydrolysis is kind of the reverse of condensation. A molecule with an ester ( O=C-O-C ), amide ( O=C-N ), phosphoester ( O=P-O ) has a bond broken between C/N/P-O broken and OH attached to the C or P and the H attaches to the O or N.

    The OH never attaches to O or N.
  13. Physiological conditions...
    Carboxylate acids hydrolize to carboxylic ions and amines hydrolize to ammonium ions at physilogical pH.

    Most carboxylic acids are conjugate ions O=C-O-

    Most amines are conjugate ions N-H+, NH22+
  14. Soap...
    When an ester ( O=C-O-C ) and a strong base ( KOH, NaOH ) are mixed the ester ionizes to O=C-O-, attracts K or Na