Chem 32 ch. 12
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When the OH from one molecule and the H from another molecule break off their respective molecules, combine to form a water molecule, and leave the remainder of their parent molecules to covalently bond at the points where the OH and H were removed.
In a condensation reaction the H that is removed is removed from an O or an N.
The products are a new molecule and a water molecule.
What is an ether?
An ether is the result of a condensation reaction where two molecules with alcohol groups ( OH, HO ) have an H taken from on molecule and and OH from the other molecule and their parent molecules are covalently bonded at the point where the H and OH were removed. This leaves an oxygen O atom in the middle of a carbon chain of the new molecule plus a water molecule.
They are named by naming the alkyl groups attached to the O in alphabetical order and adding ether to the end.
C-O-H + H-O-C --> C-O-C + H2O
What is an ester?
An ester is what you get when you take the OH off of a carboxylic acid and the H off an alcohol ( OH, HO ) and then covalently bond their parent molecules. A water molecule is also produced.
O=C-O-H + H-O-C --> O=C-O + H2O
What is an amide?
An amide is the product of a molecule with a carboxylic acid group ( O=C-O-H ) losing its O-H and another molecule with an amine group ( NH2 ) losing an H and the parent molecules covalently bonding at the point where the OH and H were removed. Water is also a product.
Amides are going to have the remnants of a carboxylic acid in them, the carbonyl group ( O=C ) will be there. If the molecule doesnt have that right next to the nitrogen then it's an amine.
What is a polymer?
A large molecule made by linking smaller molecules.
How to name polymers?
Find the repeating part of the polymer, name it, then at poly in front of it.
Amino acids have a carboxylic acid group and an amine group which can lose HO and H respectively and chain together to form proteins.
- Amino acids have a carboxylic acid group and an amine group which can
- lose HO and H respectively and chain together to form proteins.
They are named in the same way otherpolymers are named.
What is a copolymer?
A copolymer is a compound made of two "repeatable" molecules chained together in alternating fashion. The O-H on one molecule comes off and the N-H or O-H on another molecule loses its H and the two bond together.
What is a phosphoester?
A phosphoester is a result of a phosphorylation reaction where a molecule with a phosphate group ( O=P-O-H ) loses its O-H and another molecule with an O-H or N-H comes along, loses its H and the two molecules combine forming an O=P-O phosphoester group.
What are amino acids?
Amino acids are molecules that have an amino group ( NH2 ) and a carboxylic acid group ( O=C-O-H ).
How are proteins made?
Proteins are large molecules made up of smaller amino acids chained together. The amino group on one amino acid loses an H and the carboxylic acid group on another amino acid loses an O-H and the two bond where they lost atoms. A long chain of different amino acids connecting to each other is a protein.
What is hydrolysis?
Hydrolysis is kind of the reverse of condensation. A molecule with an ester ( O=C-O-C ), amide ( O=C-N ), phosphoester ( O=P-O ) has a bond broken between C/N/P-O broken and OH attached to the C or P and the H attaches to the O or N.
The OH never attaches to O or N.
Carboxylate acids hydrolize to carboxylic ions and amines hydrolize to ammonium ions at physilogical pH.
Most carboxylic acids are conjugate ions O=C-O-
Most amines are conjugate ions N-H+, NH22+
When an ester ( O=C-O-C ) and a strong base ( KOH, NaOH ) are mixed the ester ionizes to O=C-O-, attracts K or Na
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