MS test 4.txt

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  1. Senile purpura
  2. What do you look for in a functional assessment
    Past and present occupations, exposure to chemicals or other irritants, skin care habits, sun exposure; recent changes in work or living environment; current stresses and sources of anxiety
  3. Skin blood reservoir � how does it work after surgery
    The 10% of the blood network that is in the skin can be reduced by constriction and shunted to vital organs
  4. Phototherapy
    8 hrs before/after each treatment, patient should wear protective clothes, sunglasses and sunscreen to decrease added UV exposure
  5. Systemic infection
    In medical diagnosis for atopic dermatitis (eczema), monitor temperature for elevation that may reflect the systemic infection
  6. Methotrexate sodium
    an immunosuppressive drug used to treat psoriases that is nonresponsive to other protocols
  7. Candida albicans
    Causes fungal infections; appears most often in skin folds
  8. Acne
    squeezing lesions may cause them to spread and push the infection deeper into follicles
  9. Herpes zoster
    Shingles; varicella-zoster virus; also causes chickenpox; virus can lie latent in neural sheath and can be activated as shingles in older adults
  10. Cutaneous T-Cell carcinoma
    migration of malignant T cells to the skin; mycosis fungoides and Sezary syndrome; may resemble eczema with macular lesions appearing on areas protected from the sun; tumors form, enlarge, spread to distant sites; when confined to the skin, this type of lymphoma can be cured with topical chemo, systemic psoralens with UVA and/or superficial radiotherapy
  11. Rule of nines
    Page 1144 figure 50-14
  12. First degree burn
    Superficial burn-epidermis only
  13. Second degree burn
    superficial or deep partial-thickness
  14. Third, Fourth degree
    Full thickness-extend into even deeper tissue laters
  15. Retina
    -has light-sensitive receptors; rods to accommodate to dim light, cones are color receptors
  16. Past medical history
    diabetes, neurologic disorders, thyroid disease, hypertension
  17. Pg 1163 diagnostic tests and procedures
  18. Enucleation
    removal of the eye from injury, infection, sympathetic ophthalmia and some glaucomas and malignancies
  19. Post operative enucleation
    observe for excessive bleeding or increasing pain; report any temp elevation; after pressure dressing removed, wound care and topical meds may be ordered; after one month, prosthesis may be fitted
  20. Anatomy
  21. Exothalmos - Graves� disease
  22. Tonometry
    the normal intraocular pressure is between 12 and 21 mm Hg
  23. Eye irrigation
    fluid should flow from inner to outer canthus
  24. Electroretinography
  25. Assisting a visually impaired person to ambulate
  26. Medically accepted term for person with vision loss
    visual impairment is OK
  27. Nursing diagnosis for visually impaired patient
    disturbed sensory perception, ineffective coping, self-care deficit, ineffective therapeutic regimen management
  28. Presbyopia
    poor accommodation due to loss of elasticity of the ciliary muscles, most often develops after age 40, corrective lenses are needed; accommodation: adjustment of the lens for neat and distant vision, contraction or relaxation of the ciliary muscles which cause lens to change shape
  29. Cataracts
    -lens cloudy, no longer transparent
  30. Cause of Cataracts
    congenital, traumatic, degenerative
  31. Patho of cataracts
    injuries cause opacity rapidly where as age-related opacity progresses slowly
  32. Signs and symptoms of cataracts
    cloudy vision, seeing spots or ghost images, floaters
  33. Open-angle glaucoma
  34. Prevents the normal passage of aqueous humor through the trabecular meshwork
    • •Usually there are no signs and symptoms at first
    • •Tired eyes, blurred vision, and halos around lights
    • •Need for frequent changes in eyeglass prescriptions
    • •Treated first with drug therapy
    • •Beta-adrenergic blockers, adrenergics, cholinergics, carbonic anhydrase inhibitors, and hyperosmotic agents
    • •Surgical procedures: trabeculoplasty, trabeculectomy, and cyclocryotherapy
  35. Angle-closure glaucoma
  36. Flow of aqueous humor through the pupil is blocked
    • •Pressure forces iris forward; blocks trabecular meshwork
    • •Rapid rise in intraocular pressure; if not lowered promptly, permanent blindness can result
    • •Signs and symptoms: sudden, acute pain; blurred vision, halos around lights, nausea and vomiting, and headache on the affected side
    • •Drugs for treatment: miotics and oral or intravenous carbonic anhydrase inhibitors
    • •After pressure lowered, iridotomy or iridectomy usually recommended to prevent recurrence
  37. LASIK surgery,
  38. Sclera buckling-
    used to hold the retinal repair in place; band is left in place to keep the layers of the eye tissue together
  39. Know figure 51-11
  40. Otalgia
    pain in the ear
  41. Tinnitus
    ringing in the ears
  42. Caloric test
    mystagmus when warm water is introduced in the ear is positive for the hearing problem to be in the labyrinth
  43. Audiometry
    test ability to hear simple sound waves
  44. Audiologist
    assess patients for hearing aids
  45. Electronystagmography
    -detect vestibular lesions
  46. Rhine test
    conductive hearing loss
  47. Weber�s test
    bone conduction determined by sound loudest in affected ear
  48. Ear irrigation-pg 1193
  49. Care planning for ear surgery
    Risk for injury-at risk for vertigo, fluid accumulation or pressure; should avoid blowing the nose
  50. Patients should avoid ______blowing the nose___________ and ____sneezing____________ after ear surgery
  51. Conductive hearing loss
    interference with the transmission of sound waves from the external or middle ear to the middle ear
  52. Sensorineural hearing loss
    disturbance of the neural structures in the inner ear or the nerve pathways to the brain-long term diabetic not helped by hearing aides
  53. Mixed hearing loss
    combination of conductive and sensorineural
  54. Central hearing loss
    problem in the central nervous system
  55. Meniere�s disease
    attack triggers: alcohol, nicotine, stress, and certain stimuli such as bright lights and sudden movements of the head
  56. Drugs for Meniere�s
    Atropine, epinephrine, benzos, antihistamines, antiemetics, anticholingegics, vasodilators, diuretics; also be on low sodium diet
  57. Nursing diagnosis for Meniere�s
    Risk for injury-dizziness; prone to falls; patients may be dizzy for several days, unsteady for weeks so make sure call button is available
  58. Swimmer�s ear
    External otitis-chlorinated pool water dries the cerumen
  59. Acute otitis media
    Middle ear infection; usually develops with colds-fluid accumulates in middle ear causing painful pressure on tympanic membrane-drainage; membrane may rupture, resulting in scarring and subsequent hearing loss
  60. Mastoiditis
    possible complication of chronic otitis media; infection of the mastoid bone of the skull
  61. Otosclerosis
    hereditary condition in which an abnormal growth causes the footplate of the stapes to become fixed
  62. Age related changes in hearing
    Skin of auricle dry and wrinkles; wax production declines, protective wax is drier; hairs in canal coarser/longer, especially in men; eardrum thickens, bony joints in middle ear degenerate; degenerative changes: atrophy of the cochlea, cochlear nerve cells, and organ of Corti; type of hearing loss associated with age-presbycusis
  63. Therapeutic measures
    ear drops (1193), irrigation (1193)
  64. Pg 1190
    Box 52-1
  65. Impacted cerumen
    one of most common causes of obstruction; dr may order ear drops to soften before irrigation; can use ear forceps or a cerumen spoon to remove it
  66. Presbycusis
    hearing loss associated with aging; result of changes in one or more parts of the cochlea; may hear well in quiet but poorly in noisy places
  67. Ototoxicity
    primary symptoms with salicylates is tinnitus, which disappears when drug is discontinued; extent of damage depends on dosage and how long it was given
  68. Function of tonsils and adenoids
    consist of a lymphatic tissue that acts as a bacterial barrier for the respiratory and gastrointestinal tract
  69. Physical examination of the nose
    if drainage, not amount, color, and consistency
  70. Sinus assessment
    assessed indirectly; examiner palpates over the frontal and maxillary sinuses for tenderness or pain
  71. Esophageal sphincter
    weakened ES allows gastric contents to flow back into throat when patient lies down
  72. Age-related changes
    weakened esophageal sphincter allows gastric contents to flow back into the throat when the patient lies down
  73. Humidification
    helpful in keeping the nasal mucous membranes moint, which can decrease nasal infections
  74. What signals the need for suctioning
    need AEB increased restlessness and increase in vital signs
  75. Tracheostomy care
    sterile technique
  76. Nursing diagnosis for pt. with nasal surgery
    decreased cardiac output-nose is very vascular; there is a great deal of bleeding during surgery
  77. First aide for epistaxis
    have pt sit down and lean forward; direct pressure should be applied for 3-5 minutes
  78. Viral pharyngitis, bacterial pharyngitis
    bacterial pharyngitis has abrupt onset; characterized by abnormal blood cell counts, fever greater than 101 and muscle and joint pain
  79. Criteria for tonsillectomy
    airway obstruction caused by enlarged tonsils, hearing loss associated with enlarged tonsils, peritonsillar abscess
  80. Care needed for laryngitis
    voice rest is advised, removal of the irritant
  81. Complications of laryngectomy
    salivary fistula, carotid artery blowout, tracheal stenosis (cause increased dyspnea)
  82. Supraglottic laryngectomy
    care like that for total laryngectomy, except that trach is temporary, the voice is not lost, and swallowing is more problematic (may never be able to swallow correctly; could lead to aspiration pneumonia)
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MS test 4.txt
2011-11-09 16:04:19

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