Lec 18

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Lec 18
2011-11-09 13:46:41
ANT 001

Homo sapiens and the Peopling of the World
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  1. Anotomically modern Homo sapiens
    • Klasies River Mouth
    • Border Cave
    • Omo Kibish
  2. Cro Magnon
    • - Discovered in 1868 near Les Eyzie in S.W. France at the Cro magnon rock shelter
    • - Associated w/ lions, reindeer, and mammoth
    • - Mode 4 "blade" tools- Aurignacian
    • - Five anatomically modern people (30,000)
  3. Robust but Modern:
    • - vertical forehead
    • - high vault bones
    • - paralles sided skull bones
    • - rounded occipital
    • - very slight brow ridges
    • - flat faces tucked under their brains
    • - strong hins
  4. "Out of Africa" vs. "Multiregionality"
    Two competing hypotheses regarding the emergence of anatomicall modern H. sapiens

    • - Out of Africa:
    • -anatomically modern H. sapiens evolved from the archaic Homo population in Africa
    • -spread throughout Europe and Asia replacing all other archaic Homo species, including the Neandertahals
    • - Multiregionality:
    • -anatomically modern H. sapiens evolved simultaneously from archaic Homo populations throughout Africa, Europe, and Asia
    • -constant gene flow between population essentially made all archaics a single population w/ the exception of Neanderthals
  5. "Out of Africa" vs "Multiregionality Agree & Disagree that:
    • Two hypotheses agree on the following:
    • - first Homo out of Africa was H. ergaster (erectus) about 1.7 mya
    • - Neanderthals are not ancestral to anatomically modern H. sapiens

    • The two hypotheses disagree on the following:
    • -origin of anatomically moern H. sapiens
    • -amount of gene flow between populations
    • -second migration out of Africa
  6. Out of Africa
    • - Homo ergaster left Africa (first migration 1.2-1.8mya)
    • --Evolved into H. erectus, and posibly h. floresiensis in Asia
    • --Evolved into H. heidelbergensis and then H. neanderthalensis in Europe and Middle East
    • - Modern humans are all descended from the H. sapiens of the second migration out of Africa
  7. Homo sapiens Tools
    • - Sharpened bone, ivory and antlers, in addition to stone
    • - Mode 4 (blade tools)
    • - They also made some composite tools, tools made of two or more different materials (i.e. blades hafted onto a woodn handle).
  8. Attributes of Fully Modern Human Behavior
    • - Diversity and standardized of artifact types
    • - Rapid increase in rate of change in artifact types over time and space
    • - Earliest evidence of shaped bone, ivory, shell, etc.
    • - Earliest evidence of composite tools
    • - Earliest undeniable art
    • - Earliest evidence for organized camp floors
  9. Attributes of Fully Modern Human Behavior
    • - Oldest evidence of transport of raw materials over long distances (100's of kilometers)
    • - Earliest secure evidence for ceremony and ritual
    • - Evidence of ability to live in extreme cold climate
    • - Rapid increase in population density
    • - Fishing, and other evidence of advances in acquisition of food energy
  10. The Human Revolution?
    • - "Upper Paleolithic" (UP) in Europe
    • - "Middle Stone Age" and "Late Stone Age" in Africa
    • Two Views:
    • 1.) modern human behavior arose suddebly about 50 kya in Europe and Africa
    • 2.) modern human behavior was evolving gradually over a long period of time (250-60kya) in Africa
  11. Clovis
    among the earliest distinctive Upper Paleolithic cultures was the Clovis culture represented by these large, broad projectile points- spear heads.