COM 100

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COM 100
2011-12-11 23:25:22

Rhetoric and Persuasion
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  1. Means or methods of influence
    • - communication: employing currencies of expression (including adherence through use of influential language symbols)
    • - controlling: employing currencies of power (including adherence through use of influential rewards and punishments)
  2. Two Dimensions of non-forceful interpersonal influence
    • -convincing: seeking mental transformation (targeting a specific change of mind)
    • - compliance gaining: seeking behavioural modification (targeting only a specific change in action)
  3. First form of a non-forceful interpersonal influence
    discipline: employing currencies of power (rewards and punishments) to induce a targeted change of mind
  4. Second form of a non-forceful interpersonal influence
    coercion: employing currencies of power (rewards and punishments) to induce a targeted change of behavior
  5. Third form of a non-forceful interpersonal influence
    incentivization: employing currencies of expression (promise of reward and threat of punishment) to induce a targeted change of behavior
  6. Fourth (final) form of non-forceful interpersonal influence
    Persuasion: employing currencies of expression through convincing communication) to induce a targeted change of mind
  7. Aristotles Model of Peruasion
    • derived from book On Rhetoric that contains the most time tested time tested, taught, and model of persuasion
    • -serves as a guide for persuaders as they construct and convey persuasive appeals
  8. Two forms of proof in persuasive public discourse
    • inartistic proof: persuading with "hard evidence" (sometimes available)
    • artistic proof: persuading with rhetorical appeal (always available)
  9. Categories of Artistic Proof- three "hunting grounds" to discover all the rhetorical means of persuasion available in a given situation
    • Ethos: the rhetorical means for establishing reliable persuader credibility
    • Pathos: the rhetorical means for triggering menatl persuadee reflexes
    • Logos: the rhetorical means for conveying persuasive argued cases
  10. Negative ancient meaning attributed to the term "rhetoric"
    • the art of verbal "flattery" according to Plato
    • - feel good talk akin to savory cooking that simply gratifies the appetite
  11. Positive ancient meaning attributed to the term Rhetoric
    • the art of persuading people to believe and act upon the truth according to his student Aristotle
    • - rhetoric skills proved essential in a democratic society
    • - imperative in public debate regarding issues that cannot be proven to a level of certainty
  12. Modern Negative meanings to the word Rhetoric
    • -all talk and no action, misleading spin, propoganda, or outright deceit
    • - the self serving language of some preachers, politicians, lawyers and advertisers
  13. Modern Positive meaning to the word Rhetoric
    • Audience Impact according to Herbert Wichlens
    • - rehetoric is not literature or poetry that seeks to please all audiences in all places at all times- they are judged on the qualities of performance and beauty
    • - rhetoric is perssuasive communication that seeks a targeted change in a specific, intended audience - it is judged on its qualities of effects and effectiveness
  14. Authority Cues
    • indicators of knowledgability- authority of the topic or subject of persuasion (knowing what to say)
    • -credentials indicating education, experience and expertise
    • -referrals or introductions from others with recognized credentials
    • -identification of credible information sources
  15. Articulation Cues
    • indicators of skillfulness- ability to articulate the subject or topic of persuasion (knowing how to say it)
    • -stimulate and hold others attention with relevance and benefits
    • -receiver orientated language that generates meaningful understanding
    • -extemporaneous verbal delivery style; not memorized or impromptu
    • -nonverbal confidence and poise in kinesics, vocalics and occulesics
    • -professional appearance and adept use of high quality visual aids
  16. Authenticity Cues
    • Indicators
    • of passion – revealing authentic
    • feelings for the subject or topic of persuasion through self-disclosure (caring about what is being said)
    • -Personal chronicles – stories of unique lived
    • experiences
    • -Personal confessionals – episodes of
    • embarrassing mistakes
    • -Personal convictions – accounts of applied
    • beliefs and values
    • -Nonverbal enthusiasm and expressiveness
    • in vocalics, kinesics, and oculesics
  17. Attraction Cues
    • Indicators of compassion – exuding genuine
    • concern for the welfare of the persuadee (caring about who it is being said to)
  18. Material Reflexes: Contrast Cues
    • Triggering desires to maximize material gains
    • -“Door-in-the-face” (large followed by small) – high offer followed by a unilateral concession to a
    • much smaller offer
    • -“Red slash sale” (large followed by small) – high price crossed out and lower price added
    • -“Dealer options” (large followed by small) –
    • agreement to a large purchase followed by accessories at much lower prices.
    • -“But that’s not all!” (small followed by large)
    • – one item offered at a fixed price followed by other items added for “free”
  19. Material Reflexes: Scarcity Cues
    • Triggering desires to minimize material loss
    • -The fleeting opportunity (scarcity and time)
    • -“Call in the next 30 minutes” – explicit deadlines
    • - “Offer expires soon” – ambiguous deadlines
    • - E-Bay –the countdown to zero
    • -Recent scarcity – trumps longstanding scarcity
    • -The rare opportunity (scarcity and quantity)
    • -“One-of-a-kind”– definite limitations
    • -“The last one we have” – impending limitations
    • -“While supplies last” – possible limitations
    • -“The feeding frenzy” – lines, auctions, and
    • competition
    • -Banning – contraband and censorship
  20. Social Reflexes: Conformity Cues
    • Triggering desires to avoid abnormality
    • -The will of the majority – votes, polls, and tallies
    • -The preferences of the in-group – popular
    • brands, and peer beliefs or behaviors
    • -The characteristics of those who are similar –
    • emulate attitudes and actions
  21. Social Reflexes: Reciprocity Cues
    • Triggering desires to absolve indebtedness
    • -Unsolicited gifts and samples
    • -Donations and contributions
    • -Picking up the tab
    • -Unilateral concessions (rejection-retreat)
  22. Personal Reflexes: Consistency Cues
    • Triggering desires for a stable self-identity
    • - Highlighting inconsistencies
    • -“Foot-in-the-door” technique
    • -"Bait-and-switch” technique
  23. Personal Reflexes: Emotional Cues
    • triggering desires for relief from distressing emotions
    • -Shame appeals – You’ve faileding
    • to achieve an attainable goal
    • -Anger appeals – You’re impeded from achieving a goal
    • - Anxiety appeals – You’re uncertain about achieving a goal
    • - Sorrow appeals – Your goal is no longer achievable
    • -Envy appeals – You see others who’ve achieved your goal
    • - Sympathy appeals – Someone you value
    • has an unachieved goal
  24. Three Conceptions of Argumentation
    • Ø Having an argument –uncomfortable interpersonal conflict or dispute that results in relational
    • dissension (“We got into an argument about . . .”)
    • Ø Abstracting an argument – synthesizing an argument to that was made or an argument that is
    • to be made (“She essentially argued that . . .”)
    • Ø Making an argument –interactive communication that involves one party seeking adherence from
    • another party (“I am arguing that . . .”)
  25. Three Core Characteristics of of Argumentation
    • Ø Persuader-supplied argument – assertion must be accompanied by some forms of supporting evidence, reasons,
    • or rationale
    • Ø Evidence-supplied measure of certainty
    • – supporting evidence must supply a degree of certainty to the persuadee that justifies the argued assertion
    • o Arguments are incapable of supplying absolute proof of an assertion
    • o Humans are incapable of drawing conclusions based only on “blind” leaps of faith
    • Ø Persuadee-supplied leap of faith– persuadee must supply a measure of faith leading to believed-in conclusions
    • inferred by (but not “proven” by) justifying evidence
  26. Three Crucial Components of Argumentation
    • Ø Animal – targeted issue being argued arising from one of the three fundamental questions about
    • life
    • Ø Armament – accurate and reliable argued case constructed from one of the three forms of
    • human rationality
    • Ø Ammunition – potent and effective evidence supporting the argued case (armament) that
    • comports with the issue in question (animal)
  27. Three Effectivness Requirements for Argumentation
    • Ø Argued evidence must comport with persuadee question being addressed:
    • o Solvency arguments are best supported with forms of scientific evidence
    • o Sanctification arguments are best supported with forms of sacred evidence
    • o Signification arguments are best supported with forms of similitudic
    • evidence
    • Ø Argued evidence must comport with persuadee predispositions toward evidence:
    • o Persuadees must be capable of understanding evidence (aptitude)
    • o Persuadees must be committed to viability of evidence (attitude)
    • Ø Arguments must comport with persuadee latitudes
    • or ranges of attitude toward argued issue:
    • o Explore persuadee latitudes of rejection, non-commitment, and acceptance
    • o Arguments should seek small, incremental shifts in persuadee attitude change, rather than large and sudden attitude reversals
  28. Eight steps in Speech preparation
    • o Clarify your purpose
    • o Analyze your audience
    • o Gather your support material
    • o Organize your ideas
    • o Prepare your audio-visual aids
    • o Compose your speaking notes
    • o Rehearse your delivery
    • o Manage your speaking anxiety
  29. Three Steps in Identifying Your Speech Function
    • o Informative– to offer concept instruction or skill training
    • o Persuasive– to alter beliefs, values, attitudes, or actions
    • o Ceremonial– to commemorate or entertain
  30. Three Steps to Narrowing Yor Speech Topic
    • o General focus– What topic will you speak about?
    • o Specific focus– Within your topic, what is important to speak about considering your audience
    • needs and time constraints?
    • o Aiming point– What particular audience effect will you seek as the outcome of your speech?
  31. Speech Claim
    • Ø A speech claim in public speaking is
    • the counterpart to a thesis statement
    • in a written essay
    • o A speech claim discloses the intended impact of a speech – it focuses on the specific effect on the audience sought by the speech
    • Ø A speech claim creates a sense of expectation in
    • the audience
    • o It is a promise that the speaker will make to the audience
    • o It is a bold statement that generates audience anticipation
    • Ø A speech claim creates a sense of direction and challenge for the speaker
    • o It clarifies exactly what the speaker must prepare to do
    • o It motivates the speaker to be ready to deliver on the promise
  32. Audience Analysis: Two Dimensions of Audience Predisposition Toward Your Topic
    • Ø Audience Aptitude = Capability + Cognizance
    • o Capability– what your audience is able to grasp about your topic
    • o Cognizance – what your audience already knows about your topic
    • Ø Audience Attitude = Salience + Valence
    • o Salience – how much your audience cares about your topic
    • o Valence – how much your audience agrees/disagrees with your persuasive claim
  33. Sources of Material Support
    • ØPersonal knowledge, experience, and expertise
    • ØInterviewing others with personal knowledge, experience, and expertise
    • ØDirect queries with associations and agencies having specialized knowledge
    • ØLibrary sources
    • ØNon-library Internet sources
  34. Applying Publisher Evaluation Criteria to Internet Material
    • ØAuthority –What are the credentials of the authoring person or agency?
    • ØObjectivity– What are the biases or agendas of the information source?
    • ØAccuracy –What are the reliability standards for offered information?
    • ØCoverage –How thoroughly has the subject been explored and explained?
    • ØCurrency –How recent or up-to-date is the information that is offered?
  35. Organizing Your Material
    • Goal: a format that is digestable, memerable, impactful
    • Four Components: introduction, main points, transitions, and conclusion
  36. Elements of an Introduction
    • ØGain your audience’s attention
    • ØAssert your claim
    • ØReveal importance your topic has for your
    • audience
    • ØHighlightyour credibility
    • ØPreview your main points
  37. Elements of a Main Point
    • ØSpecify and explain your point
    • ØSupport your point with credible material
    • Cite your sources of support material with who and why
  38. Elements of Transition
    • ØReview or summarize the previous main point
    • ØRelate or link the previous point to the next point
    • ØPreview or highlight the next main point
  39. Elements of a Conclusion
    • ØReview the significance of each main point
    • ØRe-assert your claim
    • ØReason to remember, believe, or act
  40. Beneficial Functions of Audio-Visual Aids
    • Ø Help to stimulate and hold audience attention
    • Ø Help to explain and illustrate ideas
    • Ø Help to summarize and remember
    • Ø Help to establish your credibility
  41. Using Audio Visual Aids
    • Ø Speak to your audience, not to the screen
    • Ø Guide your audience – reveal (or point to) one item at a time
    • Ø Use only when needed – keep audience focus on YOU, the main attraction
    • Ø Avoid pass-around items and handouts during your speech
    • Ø Four steps when using a visual aid – hide it, introduce it, explain it, and hide it
  42. Extemporous Verbal Delivery Style
    • o Greater credibility through knowledgeability and authenticity
    • o Other delivery styles can be somewhat effective when they mimic the extemporaneous style
    • o Rather than imitating extemporaneous delivery, just do it!
  43. The Nature of Public Speaking Anxiety
    • ØAnxiety is caused by two simultaneous factors:
    • o Adesire to achieve an important goal, AND
    • o Uncertainty associated with achieving that goal
    • Ø To eliminate your anxiety, one of two conditions is required:
    • o Your goal must be eliminated, OR
    • o All uncertainty associated with achieving the goal must be eliminated
    • Ø Public speaking always involves seeking to achieve goals, and always involves an amount of uncertainty in achieving them:
    • o Therefore, public speaking anxiety cannot be completely eliminated
    • Ø A moderate amount of anxiety enhances performance:
    • o Too little anxiety results in apathy and poor performance
    • o Too much anxiety results in panic and poor performance
  44. Technique for Managing Speaking Anxiety
    • Ø Dam it – anxiety can be tamed:
    • o View “stage fright” as a potentially constructive energy source
    • o Transform nervous energy into enthusiastic expression
    • Ø Chosen exposure overcomes fear – public speaking is voluntary:
    • o Speeches are like parachuting
    • o View speeches as voluntary opportunities
    • Ø Transfer confidence from an arena of competence – you are capable:
    • o Public speaking is more like a conversation than a performance
    • o Employ the “friendly face” technique
    • Ø View yourself the way your audience sees you – you don’t look that nervous:
    • o You look more nervous to yourself than to others
    • o Others cannot see the extent of your anxiety (and if they notice a bit of anxiety, they will empathize or envy rather than ridicule)
    • Ø Remind yourself who the audience is – those people don’t meet your vital needs:
    • o Who meets your crucial needs for acceptance and esteem?
    • o You are speaking to satisfy some of their practical needs, not for them to satisfy some of your vital needs
  45. Human Communication:
    Can be defined as a process in which people generate meaning through exchange of verbal and nonverbal messages
  46. Communication
    simple one way flow of broadcast information facilitated by technology channels
  47. Iconic Signs
    • always bear some resemblance to what the things which they refer
    • ex: smiley face
  48. indexical sign
    • reveal somethign beyond the thing itself
    • ex: animal prints in snow can reveal direction of animal and the animal itself
  49. symbol
    something that represents someting else and conveys meaning
  50. messages
    the building blocks of communication events
  51. content meaning
    the concrete meaning of the message, and the meaning suggested by or associated with the messages and the emotions triggered by it
  52. relationship meaning
    what a message conveys about the relationship between the parties
  53. setting
    the physical surroundings of a communication event
  54. participants
    the people interacting during communication
  55. message creation
    transmitting ideas and emotions via signs and symbols
  56. encoding
    taking ideas and converting them into messages
  57. decoding
    receiving a message and interpreting its meaning
  58. channel
    the means through which a message is transmitted
  59. noise
    any stimulus that can interfere with or degrade the quality of a message
  60. feedback
    the response to a message
  61. field of experience
    the education, life experience, and cultural background that a communicator pocessess
  62. ethics
    standards of what is right and wrong, good and bad, moral and immoral
  63. communication ethics
    the standards of right and wrong that one applies to messages that are sent and received
  64. absolute
    pertaining to the belief that there is a single correct moral standard holds for everyone, everywhere, everytime
  65. relative
    pretaining to the belief that moral behavior varies among indiviuals, groups, and cultures across situations
  66. response skepticism
    the balance of open-mindedness and critical attitude needed when evaluating others messages
  67. healthy feedback
    the honest and ethical responses receivers provide to the messages of others
  68. meaning denial
    the refusal to acknowledge the intended meaning of a message
  69. disqualification
    communication acts that attempt to deny others the right to speak based on their position or identities
  70. interpretation
    the act of assigning meaning to sensory information
  71. organization
    the process by which one recognizes what sensory input represents
  72. selection
    the process of choosing which sensory information to focus on
  73. selective attention
    consciously or unconsciously attending to just a narrow range of the full array of sensory information available
  74. cognitive recognition
    the ability to form mental models of the world
  75. schema
    cognitive structure that represents an individual's understanding of a concept or person
  76. prototype
    an idealized schema
  77. planning
    the sequence of actions one developes to attain particular goals
  78. script
    a relatively fixed sequence of events that functions as a guide or template for communication or behavior
  79. categorization
    a cognitive process used to organize information by placing it into larger groupings of information
  80. label
    a name assigned to a category based on one's perception of the category
  81. stereotyping
    creating schemas that overgeneralize attributes of a specific group
  82. frame
    a structure that shapes how people interpret their perceptions
  83. attribution theory
    explanation of the processes we use to judge our own and others behavior
  84. attributional bias
    the tendency to attribute one's own negative behaviors to external causes and one's positive actions to internal states
  85. self serving bias
    the tendency to give one's self more credit than is due when a good thing happens and to accept too little responsibility for those things that go wrong
  86. fundamental atrribution error
    the tendency to attribute others negative behavior to internal causes and their positive behaviors to external causes
  87. contructs
    categories people develope to help them organize information
  88. cognitive complexity
    the degree to which a person's constructs are detailed, involved or numerous
  89. ethnocentrism
    the tendency to view one's own group as the standard against which all other groups are judged
  90. prejudice
    experiencing aversive or negative feelings toward a group as a whole or toward an individual because he or she belongs to a group
  91. ego-defensive function
    the role prejudice plays in protecting individuals' sense of self worth
  92. value expressive function
    the role played by prejudice in allowing peoplet o view their own values, norms, and cultural practices as appropriate and correct
  93. social role
    the specific position or positions one holds in society
  94. instrumental
    use of language to obtain what you need or desire
  95. regulatory
    use of language to control or regulate the behaviors of others
  96. informative
    use of language to communicate information or report facts
  97. heuristic
    use of language to acquire knowledge and understanding
  98. interactional
    useo of language to establish and define social relationships
  99. personal language
    use of language to express individuality and personality
  100. imaginitive
    use of language to express oneself artistically or creatively
  101. phonology
    the study of sounds that compse individual languages and how those sounds communicate meaning
  102. syntax
    the rules that govern word order
  103. semantics
    the study of meaning
  104. denotative meaning
    the dictionary, or literal, meaning of a word
  105. pragmatics
    field of study that emphasizes how language is used in specific situations to accomplish goals
  106. speech act theory
    branch of pragmatics that suggests that when people communicate, they do not just say things, they also do things with their words
  107. dialect
    a variation of a language distinguished by its vocabulary, grammar and pronunciation
  108. lexical choice
  109. cohort effect
    the influence of shared characteristics of a group that was born and reared in the same general period
  110. Ebonics
    a version of English that has its roots in West African and US slave languages
  111. jargon
    the specialized terms that develop in many professions
  112. nominalists
    those who argue that any idea can be expressed in any language and that the structure and vocabulary of the language do not influence the speaker's perception of the world
  113. relativists
    those who argue that language serves not only as a way for us to voice our ideas but "is itself the shaper of ideas, the guide for the individual's mental activity"
  114. Sapir-Whorf hypothesis
    idea that the language people speak determines the way they see the world
  115. disconfirming communication
    comments that reject or invalidate a positive or negative self-image of our conversational partners
  116. confirming communication
    comments that validate positive self-image of others
  117. sensing
    the sate of listening most people refer to as "hearing" when listeners pick up the sound waves directed toward them
  118. understanding
    interpreting the messgaes associated with sounds or what the sounds mean
  119. evaluating
    assessing your reaction to a message
  120. responding
    showing others how you regard their messge
  121. nonverbal behavior
    all the nonverbal actions people perform
  122. nonverbal communication
    non verbal behavior that has symbolic meaning
  123. nonverbal codes
    distinct, organized means of expression that consists of symbols and rules for their use
  124. kinesics
    nonverbal communication sent by the body, including gestures, posture, movement, facial expressions, and eye behavior
  125. gestures
    nonverbal communication made with parts of the body, including actions such as pointing or waving
  126. illustrators
    signals that accompany speech to clarify or emphasize the verbal messages
  127. emblems
    gestures that stand for specific verbal meaning
  128. adaptors
    gestures used to manage emotions
  129. regualtors
    gestures used to control conversation
  130. immediacy
    how close or invloved people appear to be with each other
  131. paralinguistics
    all aspects of spoken language except the words themselves; includes rate, volume, pitch, stress
  132. voice qualitites
    qualities such as speed, pitch, volume, rhythm, vocal range, and articulation that make up the "music" of the human voice
  133. vocalizations
    uttered sounds that do not have the structure of language
  134. chronemics
    the study of the way people use time as a message
  135. proxemics
    the study of how people use spatial cues, including interpersonal distance, territoriality, and other space relationships to communicate
  136. monochronically
    engaging in one task or behavior at a time
  137. polychronically
    engaging multiple activitites simultaneously
  138. imediate distance
    the space used when interacting with those with whom one is very close
  139. personal distance
    the space used when interacting with friends and acquantances
  140. social distance
    the distance most US Americans use when they interact with unfamiliar others
  141. public distance
    the distance used for public ceremonies such as lectures or performances
  142. haptics
    the study of the communicative function of touch
  143. communicating information
    using nonverbal behaviors to help clarify verbal messages and reveal attitudes and moods
  144. regulating interaction
    using nonverbal behaviors to help manage turn-taking during conversation
  145. espressing and managing intimacy
    using nonverbal behaviors to help convey attraction and closeness
  146. establishing social control
    using nonverbal behavior to exercise influence over other people
  147. service task functions
    using nonverbal behavior to signal close involvement between people in impersonal relationships and contexts
  148. proximity
    how close one is to others
  149. attractiveness
    the apeal one person has for another based on physical appearance, personalities and behaviors
  150. matching hypothesis
    the tendency to develop relationships with people who are approximately as attractive as we are
  151. similarity
    degree to which people share the same values, interests, and background
  152. social penetrating theory
    a theory that proposes relationships develop through self disclosure
  153. orientation
    the stage in which people first meet and engage in superfcial conversation
  154. exploratory affectiveness exchange
    stage in which people increase the breadth, depth and frequency of their self disclosure
  155. stable exchange
    stage in which relational partners engage in the greatest breadth and depth of self disclosure
  156. Knapps stage model
    model of relationship development htat views relationships as occuring in "stages" and that focuses on how ppl communicate as relationshios develope and decline
  157. initiating
    stage of romantic relational development in which both ppl behave so as to appear pleasant and likable
  158. experimenting
    stage of romantical relational development in which both ppl seek to learn about each other
  159. intensifying
    stage of romantical relational developement in which both ppl seek to increase intimacy and connectedness
  160. integrating
    stage in romantical relational developement in which both ppl portray themselves as a couple
  161. bonding
    stage of romantical relational development characterized by public commitment
  162. differentiating
    stage of romantical relational development in which couples increase their interpersonal distance
  163. circumscribing
    stage of romantical relational dissolution in which couples discuss safe topics
  164. stagnating
    stage of romantical relational dissolution in which couples try to prevent change
  165. avoiding
    stage in romantical relational dissolution in which couples try not to interact with each other
  166. terminating
    stage of romantic relational dissolution in which couples end the relationship
  167. relational trajectory models
    relationship development models that view relationship development as more variable than do stage models
  168. turning point model
    a model in which relationship development in which couples move both toward and away from commitment over the course of their relationship
  169. autonomy/connection
    a dialectical tension in relationships that refers to one's need to connect with others and the simultaneous need to feel independent or autonomous
  170. expressiveness/ privacy
    a dialectical tension in relationships that desribes the need to be open and self disclose while also maintaining some sense of privacy
  171. change/predicatability
    a dialectical tension in relationships that describes the human desire for events that are new, spontaneous, and unplanned while simultaneously needing some aspects of life to be stable and predictable
  172. relational maintenance
    behaviors tht couples perform that help maintain their relationships
  173. Machiavellian tactics
    having a third party convey one's unhappiness about a relationship
  174. truth bias
    the tendency to not suspect one's intimates of deception
  175. deception
    concealment, distortion, or lying in communication
  176. jealousy
    a complex and often painful emotion that occurs whena person perceives a threat to an existing relationship
  177. homogeneity
    a high sense of similarity
  178. grouphate
    the distaste and aversion that people feel toward working in groups
  179. primary groups
    groups that provide members with a sense of belonging and affection
  180. secondary groups
    groups that meet principally to solve problems
  181. social facilitation
    the tendency for people to work harder and do better when others are around
  182. small group communication
    communication among a small number of people who share a common purpose or goal, who feel connected to each other and who coordinate their behavior
  183. group roles
    the shared expectations group members have regarding each individual's communication behavior in the group
  184. task roles
    roles that are directly related to the accomplishment of group goals
  185. relational roles
    roles that help establish a groups social atmosphere
  186. individual roles
    roles that focus more on indv's own interests and needs than on those of the group
  187. trait theory
    leadership theory that suggests that leaders are born
  188. functional (situational) theory
    a theory that assumes leadership behaviors can be learned
  189. shared (collaborative or distributed) leadership
    a type of leadership style where functional leadership is extended to an organizational level; all members are equal partners and share responsobility for the work of the group
  190. style theory
    theory that assumes that leaders manner or style determines his/her success
  191. authoritarian leader
    leader who takes charge, makes all the decisions and dictates strategies and work tasks
  192. democratic leader
    leader whose style is characterized by considerable imput from goup members
  193. laissez-faire
    a leadership style characterized by complete freedom for the group in making decisions
  194. transformational leadership
    a leadership style that empowers group members to work independently form the leader by encouraging group cohesion
  195. charasmatic leadership
    a leadership style in which extremely self-confident leaders inspire unusual dedication to themselves by relying on their strong personalities and charm
  196. servant leadership
    a leadership style that seeks to ensure that other people's highest priority needs are being served in order to increase teamwork and personal involvement
  197. analysis paralysis
    potential pitfall in small group interaction; occurs when excessive analysis prevents a group from moving toward a solution
  198. decision-making process
    the four phase process used by a group to evaluate information and arrive at a decision or solution
  199. primary tension
    the uncertainty commonly felt in the beginning phase of decision making
  200. secondary tension
    conflict or tension found in the second or conflict phase of the decision-making process
  201. emergence phase
    the third phase in the decision making process; occurs when group members express a cooperative attitude
  202. reinforcement phase
    the final phase of the decision making process when group members reach consensus and members feel a sense of accomplishment
  203. groupthink
    a negative, and potentially disastrous group process characterized by "excessive concurrence thinking"
  204. organizations
    the set of interactions that memebs of groups use to accomplish thier individual and common goals
  205. function
    the goals and effects of communication
  206. production
    a function of organizational communication in which activity is coordinated toward accomplishing tasks
  207. maintenance
    a function of organizational communication in which the stability of exisiting systems is preserved
  208. innovation
    a funcion of organizational communication by means of which systems are changed
  209. structure
    lines of communication or a system of pathways through which messages flow
  210. downward communication
    in a traditional coduit model of communication, communication with subordinates
  211. upward communication
    in a traditional conduit model of communication, communication with superiors
  212. horizontal communication
    in a traditional conduit model of communication, communication with peers
  213. heirarchy
    a power structure in which some members exercise authority over others
  214. formal structure
    officially designated channels of communication, reflecting explicit or desired patterns of intersaction
  215. informal structure
    unspoken but understoon channels of communication, reflecting patterns that develop spontaneously
  216. societal role
    social function
  217. integration role
    organizational function in which potentially chaotic social conflicts or problems are managed
  218. political role
    organizational function in which valued resources and thus power are generated and distributed
  219. pattern manitenance role
    organizational role in which learning and expressive functions are performed while also establishing and perpetuating social and cultural norms
  220. economical production role
    organizational role in which the delivery of products or services maximizes profits
  221. intercultural communication
    communication that occurs in interactions between ppl who are culturally different
  222. culture
    learned patterns or perceptions, values, and behaviors shared by a group of ppl
  223. heterogenous
  224. border dwellers
    ppl who live between cultures and often experience contradictory cultural pattersn
  225. voluntary short-term travelers
    ppl who are border dwellers by choice and for a limited time, such as study abroad students
  226. voluntary long term travelers
    ppl who are border dwellers by choice and for an extended time, such as immigrants
  227. encapsulated marginal ppl
    ppl who feel disintegrated by having to shift cultures
  228. constructive marginal ppl
  229. ppl who thrive in a border dweller life while recognizing its tremendous challenges
  230. cultural values
    beliefs that are so central to a cultural group that they are never questioned
  231. individual orientation
    a value orientation that respects the autonomy and independence of individuals
  232. collectivistic orientation
    a value orientation that stresses the needs of the group
  233. preferred personality
    a value orientation that expresses whether it is more important for a person to "do" or to "be"
  234. view of human nature
    a vlaue orientation that expresses whether humans are fundamentally good, evil, or a mixture
  235. human-nature value orientation
    the perceived relationship between humans and nature
  236. power distance
    a value orientation that refers to the extent to which less powerful members of institutions and organizations within a culture expect and accept an unequal distribution of power
  237. long-term vs short-term orientation
    the dimension of a society's value orientation that reflects its attitude toward virtue or truth
  238. long term orientation
    a value orientation in which people stress the importance of virtue
  239. dialectic approach
    recognizes that things need not be preceived as either/or, but may be seen as both/and
  240. dichotomous thinking
    thinking in which things are percieved as either/or