MEDALIN GENETICS

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datgrl_honey
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115723
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MEDALIN GENETICS
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2011-11-09 17:55:57
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MEDALIN GENETICS
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MEDALIN GENETICS
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  1. GREGOR MENDAL
    • 1860 CATHOLIC MONK FASCINATED WITH INHERITANCE
    • USED PEA PLANTS TO FORM THEORIES ON GENES
  2. MONOHYBRID CROSS
    INVOLVES 1 (MONO) CHARACTER (GENE-LIKE HEIGHT) AND A DIFF (HYBRID) TRAITS ( FORMS SHORT OR TALL)
  3. HYBRID GENERATION OF OFFSPRING
    FIRST FILIAL ( FILIUS MEANS SON) GENERATION OR THE F1 GENERATION
  4. MONOHYBRID CROSS HYPOTHESES
    ALTENATIVE FORMS OF GENES CALLED ALLELES

    EACH CHARACTERISTIC HAS 2 GENS (1MOM 1 DAD)

    GAMETES( EGG OR SPERM) CARRY ONLY 1 ALLELE FOR EACH INHERITED CHARACTERISTIC

    ALLELES CAN BE DOMINANT OR RECESSIVE
  5. PARTICULATE THEORY
    UNITES RESPONSIBLE FOR INHERITANCE WERE DISCRETE PARTICLES

    EXISTED WITIN AN ORGANIS IN PAIRS SEPERATED DURING GAMETE FORMATION AND RETAINED INTEGRITY
  6. REPRODUCTION OF GAMETES
    ONLY 1 OF THE PAIR MEMBERS FOR A GIVEN CHARACTER PASSES TO THE GAMETE

    WHEN FERTILIZATION THE ZYGOTE GETS ONE FROM EACH PARENT RESTORING THE PAIR
  7. ALLELES
    • DIFF FORMS OF GENE
    • EAHC ALLELE IS GIVEN A SYMBOL
  8. LOCUS
    A GENE IS A PORTION OF THE CHOMO DNA THAT RESIDE AT A PARTICULAR SITE
  9. HOMOZYGOUS-TRUE BREEDING
    TWO COPIES OF SAME ALLELE
  10. HETEROZYGOUS- NOT TRUE-BREEDING
    2 DIFF COPIES OF THE SAME ALLELE
  11. HOMOLOGOUS CHROMO
    • HAVE GENES AT SPECIFIC LOCI
    • HAVE ALLELES OF A GENE AT THE SAME LOCUS
  12. PHYNOTYPE
    PHYSICAL APPEARANCE OF AN ORGANISM
  13. GENOTYPE
    ACTUAL COMPOSITION OF THE ORGANISM ALLELES FOR A GENE
  14. DOMINANT GENES
    • WRITTEN AS A CAPITAL LETTER
    • DETERMINES THE PHENOTYPE
    • IN A HETERZYGONE THIS GENE MASKS OR OVER RIDES THE RECESSIVE GENE
  15. RECESSIVE GENES
    • WRITEN LOWER CASE
    • IS HIDDNE WHEN A DOMINATE GE IS PRESENT
    • ONLY HOMOZYGOTES ITS PHENOTYPE IS EXPRESSED
  16. LAWS OF HEREDITY
    • THE LAW (PRINCIPAL) OF SEGREGATION
    • THE LAW (PRINCIPAL) OF INDEPENDENT ASSORTMENT
  17. PRINCIPLE OF SEGREGATION
    PAIRS OF ALLES SEGREGATE(SEPERATE) DURING GAMETE (EGG/SPERM) FORMATION

    FUSION OF GAMES AT FERTILIZATION CREATES ALLELE PAIRS AGAIN

    OCCURS AT CHROMOSOME SEPARATION IN MEIOSIS I
  18. TEST CROSSES
    DETERMINE THE GENOTYPE (HETEROZYGOUS OR HOMOZYGOUS) OF AN INDIVIDUAL WITH A DOMINANT TRAIT
  19. CROSSED TRUE RECESSIVE
    HALF PROGENY HAS THE DOMINANT TRAIT AND HALF THE UNKNOWN INDIVIDUAL IS HETEROZYGOUS

    IF ALL THE PROGENCY HAS THE DOMINANT TRAIT IS HOMOZYGOUS
  20. PRINCIPLE OF INDEPENDENT ASSORTMENT
    EACH PAIR OF ALLELES SEGRAGATES INDEPENNTLY OF THE OTHER PAIRS DURING GAMETE FORMATION
  21. DIHYBRID CROSSES
    TWO CHARACTERS AND HEREROZYGOUS FOR BOTH
  22. RULE OF MULTIPLICATION
    PROBABILITY OF A COMPOUND EVEN IS THE PRODUCT OF THE SEPERATE PROBABLILITES OF THE INDEPENDENT EVENTS
  23. PUNNET SQUARES
    ALLOW SCIENTIST TO PREDIT THE RATIO OF GENOTYPES AND PHENOTYPES OF PARTICULAR CROSSES

    HOMOZYGOUS DOMINANT/RECESSIVE MONOHYBRID CROSSES=ALL HETEROZYGOUS

    HEREROZYGOUS MONOHYBRID CROSSES 1/2 HOMOZYGOUS 1/2 HETEROZYOUS 1/4 HOMOZYOUS RECESSIVE

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