The layer of the Earth between the crust and the core is the
Because the _________ has more magnesium and less aluminum and silicon than the crust does, the _________ is denser than the crust.
The layer of the Earth that extends from below the mantle to the center of the Earth is the_________
___________ is made mostly of iron and contains smaller amounts of nickel but almost no oxygen, silicon, aluminum, or magnesium.
The __________ is 67% of the Earth's mass and is 2,900km thick. Temperatures in the __________ range from 1,000 degrees C to 3,700degrees C
The ________ is less than 1% of Earth's mass and 5 to 100km thick. Temperatures in the ______range from 0 degrees C to 1,000 degrees C.
The __________ is 33% of the Earth's mass and has a radius of 3,430km. Temperatures in the __________ range from 3,700 degrees C to 7,000degrees C.
The Earth is divided into five physical layers ........
the lithosphere, asthenosphere, mesosphere, outer core, and inner core
Outermost rigid layer of the Earth's surface. Made of two parts
Crust and rigid upper part of the mantle
Lithosphere is divided into pieces called .........
plastic layer of the mantle on which pieces of the lithosphere move
Beneath the asthenosphere is the strong, lower part of the mantle.........
Liquid layer of the Earth's core that lies beneath the mantle and surrounds the inner core.
solid dense center of our planet
Pieces of the lithosphere that move around on top of the asthenosphere are called.............
is the hypothesis that states that the continents once formed a single landmass, broke up, and
drifted to their present locations.
Super Continent that existed 245 million years ago.
is the process by which new oceanic lithosphere forms as magma rises toward the surface and solidifies.
Sea floor spreading
are places where sea-floor spreading takes place
Most important evidence of sea-floor spreading comes from __________ ___________ recorded in the ocean floor.
When Earth’s magnetic poles change places, this change is called a _______ __________.
The molten rock at the mid-ocean ridges contains tiny grains of__________ minerals
A is a place where tectonic plates touch.
When two tectonic plates collide, the boundary between them is a ____________ ___________.
When two tectonic plates separate, the boundary between them is called a __________ _________.
When two tectonic plates slide past each other horizontally, the boundary between them is a _________ _________
pushes the continental crust upward. (type of collision)
continent to continent collision
When a plate with oceanic crust collides with a plate continental crust. The denser oceanic crust sinks into the asthenosphere. This is called a ______________ zone.
Two oceanic plates collide, one sinks or is __________under the other.
When two tectonic plates separate, the boundary between them is called a __________________
When two tectonic plates slide past each other horizontally, the boundary between them is a ________
____________ ___________ the oceanic lithosphere slides downhill under the force of gravity.
Hot magma rises, and cool magma sinks resulting in a ____________ current
Denser oceanic lithosphere sinks and pulls the rest of the tectonic plate with it.
The process by which the shape of a rock changes because of stress is called
The type of stress that occurs when an object is squeezed, such as when two tectonic plates collide, is called
is stress that occurs when forces act to stretch an object.
The bending of rock layers because of stress in the Earth’s crust is called
downward, troughlike folds
rock layers are folded so that both ends of the fold are horizontal
The surface along which rocks break and slide past each other is called a
When a ___________ fault moves, it causes the hanging wall to move down relative to
__________ faults usually occur when tectonic forces cause tension that pulls rocks
When a ____________ fault moves, it causes the hanging wall to move up relative to
___________ faults usually happen when tectonic forces cause compression that
pushes rocks together.
_____________ faults form when opposing forces cause rock to break and
The _________ __________ ________ in California is a spectacular example of a strike-slip
San Andreas Fault
The highest mountain ranges in the world are made up of _________ _________.
__________ _________form when rock layers are squeezed together and pushed
The _____________ Mountains were once as tall as the Himalaya Mountains but have
been worn down by hundreds of millions of years of weathering and erosion.
When tectonic forces put enough tension on the Earth’s crust, a large number of
normal faults can result. _________ ________mountains form when this
tension causes large blocks of the Earth’s crust to drop down relative to other
The rock that is melted in subduction zones forms magma, which rises to the
Earth’s surface and erupts to form __________ mountains.
Sometimes these mountains can rise above the ocean surface to become islands.
The majority of tectonically active volcanic mountains on the Earth have formed
around the tectonically active rim of the Pacific Ocean. The rim has become
known as the _________ __ _______.
Ring of Fire
The rising of regions of Earth’s crust to higher elevations is called____________.
The sinking of regions of Earth’s crust to lower elevations is known as