Chapter 7

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Chapter 7
2011-11-10 15:43:57
Plate Tectonics

Review Platetectonics
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  1. The outermost layer of the Earth is the
  2. 5 to 100 km thick
  3. It is the thinnest layer of the Earth.
  4. The layer of the Earth between the crust and the core is the
  5. Because the _________ has more magnesium and less aluminum and silicon than the crust does, the _________ is denser than the crust.
    mantle, mantle
  6. The layer of the Earth that extends from below the mantle to the center of the Earth is the_________
  7. ___________ is made mostly of iron and contains smaller amounts of nickel but almost no oxygen, silicon, aluminum, or magnesium.
  8. The __________ is 67% of the Earth's mass and is 2,900km thick. Temperatures in the __________ range from 1,000 degrees C to 3,700degrees C
    mantle, mantle
  9. The ________ is less than 1% of Earth's mass and 5 to 100km thick. Temperatures in the ______range from 0 degrees C to 1,000 degrees C.
  10. The __________ is 33% of the Earth's mass and has a radius of 3,430km. Temperatures in the __________ range from 3,700 degrees C to 7,000degrees C.
    Core, Core
  11. The Earth is divided into five physical layers ........
    the lithosphere, asthenosphere, mesosphere, outer core, and inner core
  12. Outermost rigid layer of the Earth's surface. Made of two parts
  13. Crust and rigid upper part of the mantle
  14. Lithosphere is divided into pieces called .........
    tectonic plates
  15. plastic layer of the mantle on which pieces of the lithosphere move
  16. Beneath the asthenosphere is the strong, lower part of the mantle.........
  17. Liquid layer of the Earth's core that lies beneath the mantle and surrounds the inner core.
    Outer Core
  18. solid dense center of our planet
    inner core
  19. Pieces of the lithosphere that move around on top of the asthenosphere are called.............
    tectonic plates
  20. is the hypothesis that states that the continents once formed a single landmass, broke up, and
    drifted to their present locations.
    continental drift
  21. Super Continent that existed 245 million years ago.
  22. is the process by which new oceanic lithosphere forms as magma rises toward the surface and solidifies.
    Sea floor spreading
  23. are places where sea-floor spreading takes place
    Mid-ocean ridges
  24. Most important evidence of sea-floor spreading comes from __________ ___________ recorded in the ocean floor.
    magnetic reversals
  25. When Earth’s magnetic poles change places, this change is called a _______ __________.
    magnetic reversal
  26. The molten rock at the mid-ocean ridges contains tiny grains of__________ minerals
  27. A is a place where tectonic plates touch.
  28. When two tectonic plates collide, the boundary between them is a ____________ ___________.
    Convergent Boundary
  29. When two tectonic plates separate, the boundary between them is called a __________ _________.
    divergent boundary
  30. When two tectonic plates slide past each other horizontally, the boundary between them is a _________ _________
    transform boundary
  31. pushes the continental crust upward. (type of collision)
    continent to continent collision
  32. When a plate with oceanic crust collides with a plate continental crust. The denser oceanic crust sinks into the asthenosphere. This is called a ______________ zone.
  33. Two oceanic plates collide, one sinks or is __________under the other.
  34. When two tectonic plates separate, the boundary between them is called a __________________
    divergent boundary
  35. When two tectonic plates slide past each other horizontally, the boundary between them is a ________
  36. ____________ ___________ the oceanic lithosphere slides downhill under the force of gravity.
    Ridge push
  37. Hot magma rises, and cool magma sinks resulting in a ____________ current
  38. Denser oceanic lithosphere sinks and pulls the rest of the tectonic plate with it.
    slab pull
  39. The process by which the shape of a rock changes because of stress is called
  40. The type of stress that occurs when an object is squeezed, such as when two tectonic plates collide, is called
  41. is stress that occurs when forces act to stretch an object.
  42. The bending of rock layers because of stress in the Earth’s crust is called
  43. upward-arching folds
  44. downward, troughlike folds
  45. rock layers are folded so that both ends of the fold are horizontal
  46. The surface along which rocks break and slide past each other is called a
  47. When a ___________ fault moves, it causes the hanging wall to move down relative to
    the footwall.
  48. __________ faults usually occur when tectonic forces cause tension that pulls rocks
  49. When a ____________ fault moves, it causes the hanging wall to move up relative to
    the footwall.
  50. ___________ faults usually happen when tectonic forces cause compression that
    pushes rocks together.
  51. _____________ faults form when opposing forces cause rock to break and
    move horizontally.
  52. The _________ __________ ________ in California is a spectacular example of a strike-slip
    San Andreas Fault
  53. The highest mountain ranges in the world are made up of _________ _________.
    folded mountains
  54. __________ _________form when rock layers are squeezed together and pushed
    Folded mountains
  55. The _____________ Mountains were once as tall as the Himalaya Mountains but have
    been worn down by hundreds of millions of years of weathering and erosion.
  56. When tectonic forces put enough tension on the Earth’s crust, a large number of
    normal faults can result. _________ ________mountains form when this
    tension causes large blocks of the Earth’s crust to drop down relative to other
  57. The rock that is melted in subduction zones forms magma, which rises to the
    Earth’s surface and erupts to form __________ mountains.
  58. Sometimes these mountains can rise above the ocean surface to become islands.
    The majority of tectonically active volcanic mountains on the Earth have formed
    around the tectonically active rim of the Pacific Ocean. The rim has become
    known as the _________ __ _______.
    Ring of Fire
  59. The rising of regions of Earth’s crust to higher elevations is called____________.
  60. The sinking of regions of Earth’s crust to lower elevations is known as