soc 3

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  1. Is deviance relative?
  2. How did Howard S. Becker describe deviance?
    It's not the act itself but the reactions to the act that make something deviant
  3. Chagnon's example w/ the Yanomamo let us see what about deviance?
    that is is relative
  4. When sociologist use the term deviance what does it mean?
    They do not agree that an act is bad, rather just that people judge it negatively.
  5. Who does sociologists think are deviants?
    They think we all are deviants of one sort or another because we all violate norms from time to time.
  6. Who used the term stigma to refer to characteristics that discredit people?
    Erving Goffman
  7. Does a person have to do anything to be considered a deviant?
  8. Why can no human group exist without norms?
    Because norms make social life possible b y making behavior predictable.
  9. Without norms we would have social _______
  10. Deviance undermines __________.
    predictability, the foundation of social life.
  11. Because deviance is so relative what is deviant in one group may be _________ in another.
  12. Sociologist's must consider deviance from within a group's own framework because...
    their meanings underlie their behavior.
  13. Sociobiologists explain deviance by looking for ....
    answers within individuals.
  14. What do sociobiologists assume lead people to such deviances such as juvenile delinquency and crime.
    genetic predisposition
  15. What are the three theories that sociobiologists believe in when explaining the genetic predispostion of those who deviate?
    • Intelligence (low IQ=Crime)
    • "XXY" Theory (An extra Y chromosome in males leads to crime)
    • Body Type (People w/ squarish, muscular bodies are more likely to commit street crime)
  16. ______ focus on abnormalties within the individual and examine personality disorders.
  17. No specific childhood experiences is invariably linked with....
  18. Deviance is not associated with any particular ________.
  19. Sociologists search for factors _________ the individual.
  20. What is social class?
    people's relative standing in terms of education, occupation, and especially income and wealth.
  21. What is the theory on deviance through the symbolic interactionist perspective.
    Differential association theory
  22. Who coined the term "Differential Association"?
    Edwin Sutherland
  23. What theory stated that from the different groups we associate with, we learn to deviate from or confomr to society's norms?
    Differential association theory
  24. What is the end result of differntial association?
    An imbalance (attitudes that tilt us in one direction or another.)
  25. What four group influences us in the theory of differential association?
    • Families
    • Neighborhoods
    • Friends
    • Subcultures
  26. Families that are involved in _______ tend to set their children on a lawbreaking path.
  27. Symbolic interactionists stress that we ______ pawns in the hands of others
    are not
  28. Symbolic interactionists believe that we help to produce our own ________ to life.
  29. By joining one group rather than another (differential association), we help to do what?
    shape the self.
  30. Who developed control theory?
    Walter Reckless
  31. According to Walter Reckless, how many control systems work against our motivations to deviate?
  32. Inner controls?
    internalized morality- conscience, religious principles, ideas of right and wrong, fears of punishment, feelings of integrity, desire to be "good"
  33. Outer Controls?
    People - family, friends and the police
  34. The stronger our bonds with society are, the more effective our _______ are.
    inner controls
  35. Bonds are based on...
    • attachments
    • commitments
    • involvemnets
    • beliefs
  36. Who said that the control theory could be summarized as self-control?
    Travis Hirschi
  37. The key to learning high self-control is ...
    socialization (especially in childhood)
  38. Who studied "bad" boys and developed the techniques of neutralization?
    Gresham Sykes and David Matza
  39. What are the five techniques of neutralization?
    • Denial of resposnibility
    • Denial of injury
    • Denial of a victim
    • Condemnation of the condemners
    • Appeal to higher loyalties
  40. Description of Denial of responsibility?
    It was an accident, "I am the victim"
  41. Description of Denial of Injury
    It's ok because no one got hurt
  42. Description of Denial of Victim
    They are not a victim, they deserved it
  43. Description of condemnation of the condemner
    They are hypocrites...who are they to judge, theyre no better
  44. Description of appeal to higher loyalties
    I had to help my friends, had to steal for my mom
  45. Everyone attempts to _________ the moral demands of society.
  46. Who did a study on outlaw bikers to show that some people embrace deviant labels?
    Mark Watson
  47. Symbolic interactionists examine how people's definitions of the situation underlie their deviating or confroming to __________.
    social norms
  48. Who focuses on group membership (differential association), how people balance pressures to conform and deviate (control theory) and the significance of people's reputations (labeling theory)?
    Symbolic interactionists
  49. What is the central point of symbolic interactionism, when dealing with deviance?
    Deviance involves a clash of competing definitions.
  50. Who came of with the conclusion that deviance is functional for society?
    Emile Durkheim
  51. What are the three main functions of deviance in society?
    • Clarifies moral boundaries and affirms norms
    • Promotes social unity
    • Promotes social change
  52. Functionalists argue that crime is a _______ part of society
  53. What did sociologists, Richard Cloward and Llyod Ohlin identify as the crucial problem of the industrialized world?
    The need to locate and train its talented people.
  54. To get the most talented people to compete with one another, society tries to motivate everyone to strive for success by.....
    Arousing discontent by making people feel dissatisfied with what they have so that they will try to "better" themselves.
  55. We are quite successful in getting almost everyone to want _________, but we aren't successful in equalizing access to the __________.
    • Culture goals
    • Institutionalized means
  56. Who developed the strain theory?
    Robert Merton
  57. What is anomie?
    sense of normlessness
  58. who developed the term anomie?
    Robert Merton
  59. What is the first and most common reaction to cultural goals and institutionalized means according to Robert Merton?
  60. What are the four deviant responses that people use when respodning to strain according to Robert Merton?
    • Innovation
    • Ritualism
    • Retreatism
    • Rebellion
  61. The conformity acceptance with cultural goals and instituaionalized means are?
    Accept CG and Accept IM
  62. The innovation acceptance with cultural goals and instituaionalized means are?
    Accept CG and Reject IM
  63. The Ritualism acceptance with cultural goals and instituaionalized means are?
    Reject CG and Accept IM
  64. The Retreatism acceptance with cultural goals and instituaionalized means are?
    Reject CG and Reject IM
  65. The Rebellion acceptance with cultural goals and instituaionalized means are?
    Reject/Replace CG and Reject/Replace IM
  66. Prime example of innovation?
    Crack dealers (accept cultural goal of acheiving wealth, but rject legitmate ways of achieving the wealth.)
  67. Prime example of Ritualism?
    Teachers who hate their job (Reject cultural goals of being a suceful teacher and actually teaching, accept the institutionalized means of the job by following the rules)
  68. Prime example of retreatism?
    Alcoholic/drug user (reject goal of being successful, reject goal of being sober and not doing drugs)
  69. Prime example of rebellion?
    Revolutionists, teenagers. (not only rject both the cultural goals and institionalized means, but replaces them also) "makes their own rules"
  70. Strain theory underscores the sociological principle that deviants are the product of _______.
  71. Mainstream social values and produce _______.
  72. People who feel _________ are more likely to be deviant, or take nonconforming paths.
    social strain
  73. Who developed the illegitimate opportunity structure?
    Cloward and Ohlin
  74. What is a feature of society that surrounds us from birth?
  75. As more opportunites arised for women, more women____________.
    Committed crimes
  76. Functionalists stress that just as the social classes differ in opportunities for education and income, they also differ for oppourtunities for _________.
  77. Street crime is higher among the _______ social classes and white-collar crime is higher among the ________ social classes.
    • lower
    • higher
  78. The growing rates of crime for women illustrate how ___________ have given women more access to "illegitmate oppourtunities"
    changing gender roles
  79. What do conflict theorists regard as the main charateristics of society?
    Power and social inequality
  80. Conflist theorists stress that the power elite uses the ______ to protect its poition of power and privilege.
    criminal justice system
  81. The idea that the law operates impartially to bring justice is a cultural myth promoted by _______.
    The capitalist class
  82. Who receives the least of the society's material rewards?
    the working class
  83. How does the capitalist prevent rebellion from the working class?
    The law specifically comes down on those harder who fit in the working class.
  84. Which group is least rooted in society?
    poor working class
  85. Most of the inmates in the prison system in the United States come from the ________ class.
    poor working
  86. How does the law keep the working class from revolting, when the capitalist class gets too oppressive?
    Eventually prosecuting a member of the power elite to try and show a display of fairness of the criminal justice system.
  87. Conflict theories stress that the power elite uses the legal system to control workers and to stabilize _________.
    social order
  88. According to conflict theorists, the ______ pose a threat, and dislodge members of the _______.
    • poor
    • power elite
  89. To prevent revolts, the power elite makes certain that heavy penalities come down on those whose crimes could upset the ____________.
    social order
  90. Total amount of people in the prison system?
    about 2.3 million people (1 out of every 140 citizens)
  91. On any given day 1 out of ____ latinos are in jail or prison.
  92. On any given day 1 out of ____ african americans are in jail or prison.
  93. On any given day 1 out of ____ whites are in jail.
  94. Most prisioners have never ________.
  95. What are the two things that "anchor us" to steer away from ending up in prision?
    Marriage and Education
  96. What do sociologist think about the decline in violent crime?
    issue not resolved but split between tough sentencing (three strike law) and the economy
  97. What does the recidivism rate show us?
    That prisions do not teach people that crime doesn't pay
  98. The death penalty shows Social class and gender ______.
  99. ______ of the prisioners on death row have not finished high school.
  100. Who documented bias in the courtroom with death penalty cases?
    Donald Partington
  101. Like deviance, crime is_________.
  102. Whose findings demonstrate the need for caution in interpreting official statistics?
    symbolic interactionists and conflict theorists
  103. Crime statistics do not have an objective, independent ________.
  104. Reactions to deviants vary from _____ sanctions to _____ sanctions
    • mild
    • severe
  105. Formal sanctions are...
    Court hearings, law, etc.
  106. informal sanctions are...
    "silent treatment", stares, etc.
  107. What does it mean to medicalize something?
    To make it a medical matter, classify it as a form of illness that properly belongs in the care of physicians
  108. Who argues that mental illnesses are neither mental, nor ilnesses, but are simply problem behaviors?
    Thomas Szasz
  109. When people are disturbed by someone's deviance and when they cannot find a satisfying explanation for why the person is "like that", they often say that the person is.....
    "sick in the head"
  110. What is an example that is in favor of Szasz's argument on mental illnesses? and why?
    ADD. because no one can explain where the disease came from, why it didn't exist 50 years ago, and no one can diagnose it with "objective" tests.
  111. Why do some people behave the way they do?
    Depends on those people's particular experiences in life, not on an illness in their mind.
  112. Some sociologists find Szasz's renegade analysis refreshing because it indicates that _________ underlie bizarre behaviors and deviance.
    social experiences
  113. Living on the streets can cause a ________
    mental illness
  114. Homlessness can cause________ and mental illnesses can cause _______.
    • Mental illnesses
    • homelessness
  115. Who said deviance was inevitable?
  116. What is Durkhiem's suggestion for a more human approach towards deviance?
    • To protect people from deviance that harms them and others
    • To tolerate deviance that is not harmful
    • develop systems of fairer treatment for deviants.
  117. Every society ________ its members.
  118. In every society of the world, gender is a basis for________ people.
  119. What are the three systems of social stratification?
    slavery, caste and class
  120. Slavery was most widespread in ________ societies
  121. What were the three factors slavery was based on (before and besaides race)?
    • debt
    • crime
    • war
  122. Who noted that women were the first people enslaved through warfare?
    Gerda Lerner
  123. When slavery first started it was a sign of ____, not inferiority.
  124. What used to be the three major conditions of slavery?
    • Slavery was temporary
    • Slavery was not inheritable
    • Slaves were not powerless and poor
  125. Because slavery has a broad range of causes, analysts say that slavery lead to ________.
  126. When did people start searching for and capturing slaves?
    When there was not enough indentured servants to meet the growing need for labor .
  127. To make slavery more profitable, slave states passed laws that made slavery ______.
  128. What was W.E.B Du Bois view on the slavery in the south?
    "Gradually the entire white south became an armed camp to keep negroes in slavery and to kill the black rebel"
  129. Today, the enslavement of children for work and sex is a problem in _________.
    Asia, Africa and South America
  130. Where does the form of slavery in which boys are forced to be jockeys in camel races take place?
    Kuwait, Qatat and Saudi Arabia
  131. In the caste system what kind of status is used to determine one's position in society? and what kind is not used?
    • ascribed
    • achieved
  132. What kind of marriage is prohibited in caste societies?
  133. What is ritual pollution?
    Touching an inferior caste contaminates the superior caste
  134. What is a jati?
    indian subcaste (based on religion)
  135. What is ablution?
    Washing rituals used in India, when people in higher castes are contaminated by people in lower casts, and need to restore purity.
  136. The indian government formally abolised their caste sytem in _____.
  137. What are the dalits?
    The (untouchables) - the outcastes; degrading or polluting labor
  138. What are the shudra?
    Peasants and laborers
  139. What are the vaishya?
    Merchants and traders
  140. What are the kshatriya?
    The rulers and soldiers
  141. Who are the Brahman?
    priests and teachers
  142. Even though the caste system was abolished in india it......
    remains a part of everyday life.
  143. When slavery ended in the united states is was replace with....
    a racial caste system
  144. A class system is much more _______ than a caste sytem
    open (flexible upon who its members are)
  145. At birth in a class system you are given a _______ status until you are able to get an _______ status.
    • ascribed
    • acheived
  146. What is the major differnece about laws of marriage and occupations between the caste and class systems?
    In the class systems, there are no laws that specify people's occupations on the basis of birth or prohibit marriage between the classes.
  147. A class system allows social _______.
  148. What is a major force that drives people to go far in school and to work hard?
    The potential for improving one's life, or for falling down the class ladder.
  149. In every society of the world, gender is a basis for ___________.
    social stratification
  150. ______ cuts across all systems of social stratification.
  151. In every society of the world men's earnings are _____ than womens.
  152. What is the global superclass?
    Wealth and power are more concentrated than ever before in world history.
  153. How many people are in the global superclass?
    about 6,00 people
  154. The richest 1,000 people of the global superclass have more wealth than ______ people on this planet.
    2 1/2 billion
  155. What category would Henslin put Kuwait into?
    The oil- rich nations,
  156. What are the different catergories in the global stratification model?
    • Most industrialized Nations
    • Industrializing Nations
    • Least industrialized Nations
    • Oil-Rich Nations
  157. Brief description of the most industrialized nations?
    Economy is capitalistic, enormous wealth
  158. Brief description of the industrializing nations?
    Lower incomes and lower standards of living, majority is better off than those in the least industrialized nations.
  159. Brief description of the least industrialized nations?
    most people live on small farms or in villages, have large families and barely survive.
  160. What is an explanation of how global stratification came about?
    World systems theory
  161. What led to the four gropus of nation in the world systems theory?
  162. What is the first group of the world systems theory?
    Core nations
  163. What were the first countries that industrialized first within the first group?
    • Britain
    • Holland
    • France
    • Germany
  164. The countries in the first group grew________.
    rich and powerful
  165. What is the second group in the world systems theory?
    The semiperiphery
  166. Brief descirption of the Semiperiphery group in the world systems theory.
    Economies of these nations (located around the mediterranean) are stagnated because they gre dependent on trade with the core nations.
  167. What is the third group of the world system theory?
    The periphery
  168. Breif description of the periphery group of the world systems theory?
    Sold cash crops to the core nations
  169. What is the fourth group of the world system theory?
    External area
  170. Breif description of the external area of the world system theory.
    Left out of the developement of capitalism.
  171. What has created extensive ties among the world's nation?
    Global of capitalism
  172. What does colonialism stress?
    that countries that industrialized first got the jump on the rest of the world.
  173. According to the colonialism theory, what did the countries that industrialized first do to other countires?
    Invaded the weaker nations, making colonies out of them
  174. What was the purpose of colonialism?
    • was to establish economic colonies
    • exploit the nations, people, and resources to benefiet the "mother" country
    • Shapes many least industrialized nations
  175. What are the four main reasons that people give more prestige to some jobs than to others?
    • They pay more
    • They require more education
    • They entail more abstract thought
    • They offer more independence (less supervision)
  176. Who developed a six-teir model of portray the class structure on the U.S?
    Joseph Kahl and Dennis Gilbert
  177. The Tiny 1% capitalist class is worth more than the entire bottom ____ of the country.
  178. The capitalist class can be divided into _________
    old and new money.
  179. Old money capitalists can also be called...
    "blue bloods"
  180. Who are at the lower end of the capitalist class?
    The Nouveau Riche "new money"
  181. Who are the Noveau Riche?
    People who have made fortunes in business, etc., but did not attend the right schools and do not share the social networks that come with old money.
  182. What are the six classes of the u.s social class ladder? (In descending order)
    • Capitalialist
    • Upper Middle
    • Lower Middle
    • Working
    • Working Poor
    • Underclass
  183. What is the class that is most shpaed by education?
    The upper middle class.
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soc 3
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