anatomy chemistry and the cell

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anatomy chemistry and the cell
2011-11-09 23:20:20

chemistry and the cell
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  1. organization of living matter
    • 1. chemical level
    • 2. cells
    • 3. tissues
    • 4. organs
    • 5. organ systems
    • 6. organism
  2. atoms
    tiny particles that make up matter
  3. nucleus
    • positively charged core of the atom
    • second subdivision of structure of a cell
    • control center
    • contains DNA
  4. electron cloud
    negatively charged outer region of the atom
  5. ions
    if atoms lose or gain electrons so that their electron cloud has either more - or less + electrons than the nucleus, than the resulting particle is called an ion
  6. cations
    positive ions
  7. anions
    negative ions
  8. electrolytes
    atoms that break into ions when placed in a water solution can conduct electricity through the solution, these current conducting ions in solution is called electrolytes
  9. organic molecules
    molecules that contain carbon atoms and are found in living or once living sources
  10. inorganic molecules
    • generally do not contain carbon atoms.
    • a few carbon containing chemicals are also classified as inorganic, the most common are pure carbon in the form of diamons and graphitw, carbon dioxide, and bicarbonates such as baking soda
  11. decomposition reactions
    chemical bonds within a larger molecule are broken down to produce two or more smaller substances
  12. synthesis reactions
    new chemical bonds are created to join together two or more atoms or small molecules into a single lager molecule
  13. exchange reactions
    bonds are both broken and made as parts of the reactants are shuffled around to form new products
  14. oxidation-reduction reactions
    the body employs another important means to releasr engery
  15. cell or plasma membrane
    • first subdivision of the basic cell structure
    • outer envelope of the cell
    • have ablitly to control movement of molecules between the inside and outside of the cell
  16. four general functions of cell membrane
    • mechanical barrier
    • selective gate keeper
    • chemical receptor sites
    • identify self from non self for immune function
  17. cytoplasm
    • third subdivision of basic cell structure
    • fluid within the cell
    • cytosol- gell like mass containing enzymes, ribsomoes, transport vesicles, and various filaments and microtubules
  18. endoplasmic reticulum
    • smooth and rough
    • protein manufacturing factory
  19. golgi complex
    specialize in modifying, packaging, and distributing proteins
  20. lysosomes
    capable of digesting and removing various unwanted cellular debris and foreign material, such as bacteria that have been internalized within the cell
  21. peroxisomes
    detoxification of waste
  22. mitochondria
    creates engery
  23. cilia
    • numerous, small, hairlike projections of the surface of the cell
    • moves material on the cell surface forward
  24. flagella
    • single, long, whiplike appendage of the cell membrane
    • used to move a cell through its environment
  25. microtubles
    • very slender, long, hollow, unbranched tubes
    • they help the cell maintain its shape
  26. diffusion along concentration gradients
    if a greater number of any molecule that can penetrate the cell mebrane exists on one side of the membrane versus the other side, then the random movement of the moleciles will result in molecules moving from the site of higher concentration to the site of lower concentration
  27. osmosis
    movement of water molecules and between the channels in the membrane. movement of water molecules from an area of high concentration of water molecules to an are of low concentration of water molecules
  28. carrier mediated transport
    • require special carrier proteins in the membrane to transport small water solube molecules into or out of the cell.
    • carrier proteins span the thickness of the plasma membrane and are able to undergo reversible changes in shape to that specific binding sites can alternately be exposed at either side of the membrane
  29. vasicular transport- endocytosis/excoytosis
    special carrier mediated transport systems embbedded in the plasma membrane can selectively transport ions and smaller polar molecules
  30. glycolysis
    • occurs within the cytosol of the cell
    • produces 2 ATP molecules per glucose molecule
  31. tricarboxylic acid cycle or kreb's cycle or citric acid cycle
    • takes place in the mitochondria of the cell
    • produces 36 ATP molecules per glucose molecule