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What is the purpose of a naming ceremony?
acknoledges a child's birthright and establishes their social identity; individualize a person and identify them as a group member
Why do some societies have a naming ceremony?
without a name, an individual has no identity, no self
the distinct way a person thinks, feels, and behaves
Which is indicative of American practice, dependence or independence training?
character traits that occur with the highest frequency in a social group and are therefore the most representative of its culture
a person born with reproductive organs, genitalia, and or sex chromosomes that are not exclusively male or female
A system, or a functioning whole, composed of both the physical environment and the organisms living within it.
The process in which human groups adapt to their environments by means of their cultures over time (evolve).
- the development of similar adaptations to
- similar environmental conditions by peoples whose ancestral cultures were similar
- ex: European and American culture
The number of people that the available resources can support at a given level of food-getting techniques.
- Cultivation of crops carried out with simple hand tools such as digging sticks or hoes.
- ex: slash and burn
The cultivation of food plants in soil prepared and maintained for crop production.
Subsistence that relies on raising herds of domesticated animals, such as cattle, sheep, and goats.
a cultural obligation compelling wealthy members of a community to distribute/share goods, free services, etc. to ensure that no one permanently is more wealthy than someone else (ex: potlach)
- Has to be durable
- Easily divisible
- Mutually recognizable
recognized by society as having a continuing claim to the right of sexual access to one another.
The prohibition of sexual relations between specified individuals, usually parent-child and sibling relations at a minimum.
- –Marriage outside the group.
- –Example: United States
- -Benefit: Building alliances
- –Marriage within a particular group or category of individuals.
- –Benefit: India’s castes (keep wealth in the family)
polygyny - Marriage of a man to two or more women at the same time; a form of polygamy
polyandry - Marriage of a woman to two or more men at one time; a form of polygamy
group marriage - Marriage in which several men and women have sexual access to one another
Serial monogamy - A form of marriage in which a man or woman marries a series of partners
Marriage by proxy to the symbols of someone not physically present to establish the social status of a spouse and heirs.
–Payment of money from the groom’s to the bride’s kin.
–The groom is expected to work for a period for the bride’s family.
–Payment of a woman’s inheritance at the time of marriage to her or her husband.
–A residence pattern in which a married couple lives in the locality associated with the husband’s father’s relatives.
–A residence pattern in which a married couple lives in the locality associated with the wife’s relatives.
–A pattern in which a married couple may choose either matrilocal or patrilocal residence.
–A pattern in which a married couple may establish their household in a location apart from either the husband’s or the wife’s relatives.
a kind of kinship group in which being in the direct line of descent from a real or mythical ancestor is a criterion of membership.
- - a social network of relatives within which individuals have rights and obligations.
- - One’s kinship status, determines these rights and obligations.
- - A small circle of paternal and maternal relatives.
- - A kindred is never the same for any two persons except siblings.
Descent that establishes group membership through either the mother’s or the father’s line
Matrilineal: and example
– Descent traced exclusively through the female line to establish group membership.
Patrilineal: and example
–Descent traced exclusively through the male line to establish group membership.
- The belief that people are related to particular animals, plants, or natural objects by virtue of descent from common ancestral spirits.
- EGO is the central person from whom the degree of each relationship is traced.
Eskimo kinship system:
- System of kinship terminology, also called lineal system, that emphasizes the nuclear family by specifically identifying the mother, father, brother, and sister, while lumping together all other relatives into broad categories such as uncle, aunt, and cousin.
Hawaiian kinship system:
- - Kinship reckoning in which all relatives of the same sex and generation are referred to
- by the same term.
- - Same sex, same generation = same term
- - Least number of terms
Iroquois kinship system:
- Kinship terminology wherein a father and father’s brother are given a single term, as are a mother and mother’s sister, but a father’s sister and mother’s brother are given separate terms.
Which kinship system is indicative of Americans?
How do new reproductive technologies effect the family structures and definitions, including rights and obligations of kinship systems?
- Alternate means of reproduction such as surrogate motherhood and in vitro fertilization
What are the common interest groups?
- - have served to preserve traditional songs, history, language, moral beliefs and customs
- - Membership may be voluntary or compulsory
- - Examples: Crips in LA who all where blue bandanas
Why do people organize in common interest groups?
- formed to deal with specific challenges or opportunities.
Egalitarian vs. Stratified:
Egalitarian: has as many valued positions as persons capable of filling them
Stratified: divided into categories of people who do not share equally in resources (wealth), influence (power), or prestige
What are the types of social stratification?
- •Social class
- •Race and ethnicity
Who has "the rewards" in American culture?
- Those with Wealth, Power, or Prestige
- Origin: India, more specifically Hinduism
- Definition: A social class in which membership is determined by birth and fixed for life
Where is the caste system prominent?
What is social mobility?
- - Open-class societies are those with the easiest mobility.
- - Degree of mobility is related to education or type of family organization that prevails in a society.
- - Where the extended family is the norm, mobility tends to be severely limited.
Is America an open-class or closed class system? Why?
open-class, because it is easy(ier) to change social classes
What are ethnic psychoses?
a mental disorder specific to a particular cultural group (culture-bound syndrome)
Which ethnic psychoses is prominent in Western Cultures? Why?
anorexia and bulemia; western consumeres are becoming obese and society exalts thinness
Among food foraging societies, how is the
division of labor divided?
What does “egalitarian” mean?
few possessions and share what they have
What types of societies exhibit egalitarian
- small nomadic groups living within a fixed territory, and are food foraging
- They are not very aggressive or warlike
What constitutes technology?
-The use of tools, along with the knowledge to make those tools
What types of technology are used in
horticultural systems? In agricultural systems?
Horticultural: axe, digging stick, and hoe
Agricultural: technologies other than hand tools, such as irrigation, fertilizers, and the wooden or metal plow pulled by harnessed draft animals.
What are the three major patterns of division of
labor? (major divisions and divisions by gender)
- division of labor by gender and age at the very minimum
- Gender: Flexible/integrated pattern, Segregated
- pattern, Dual sex configuration
What are the three major forms of distribution?
Give examples of each.
Market Exchange (any store), Reciprocity (balanced: xmas), and Informal Economy (black market)
What are the three types of reciprocity? Give
examples of each.
- Generalized – the value of what is given is not calculated and repayment is not specified
- Ex:charity, parents
- Balanced – a direct obligation to reciprocate in equal value for the relationship to continue
- Ex:Christmas, birthday
- Negative – the giver tries to get the better of the deal
- Ex:barter, trading
What is the purpose of the Kula ring?
- - Form of Balanced Reciprocity
- - The ceremonial trading of shell necklaces and armbands in the Kula ring encourages trade throughout Melanesia.
What is the purpose of a potlatch?
- a form of conspicuous consumption where a village chief will give away his goods (food) to his people in a showy displace of his wealth.
What is the most common form of marriage and why?
What is the universal form of incest taboo?
parent-child and sibling relations at a minimum
What are the benefits of endogamy?
India’s castes (keep wealth in the family)
What are the benefits exogamy?
What are the three major forms of marriage and their "sub-forms?"
- Polygamy-multiple spouses
- –Polygyny-one man, multiple wives
- –Polyandry-one woman, multiple husbands
- –Group marriage