Phy

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Phy
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2011-11-10 00:30:25
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Chapter 8
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  1. Artificial intelligence
    Any artificial system (often a computer program) that is capable of human-like problem solving or intelligent responding.
  2. Base rate
    The basic rate at which an event occurs over time; the basic probability of an event.
  3. Bilingualism
    An ability to speak two languages.
  4. Chronological age
    A person’s age in years.
  5. Cognition
    The process of thinking or mentally processing information (images, concepts, words, rules, and symbols).
  6. Concept
    An idea representing a category of related objects or events.
  7. Concept formation
    The process of classifying information into meaningful categories.
  8. Conceptual rule
    A formal rule for deciding if an object or event is an example of a particular concept.
  9. Conjunctive concept
    A class of objects that have two or more features in common. (For example, to qualify as an example of the concept an object must be both red and triangular.)
  10. Connotative meaning
    The subjective, personal, or emotional meaning of a word or concept.
  11. Convergent thinking
    Thinking directed toward discovery of a single established correct answer; conventional thinking.
  12. Culture-fair test
    A test (such as an intelligence test) designed to minimize the importance of skills and knowledge that may be more common in some cultures than in others.
  13. Deductive thought
    Thought that applies a general set of rules to specific situations; for example, using the laws of gravity to predict the behavior of a single falling object.
  14. Denotative meaning
    The exact, dictionary definition of a word or concept; its objective meaning.
  15. Deviation IQ
    An IQ obtained statistically from a person’s relative standing in his or her age group; that is, how far above or below average the person’s score was relative to other scores.
  16. Disjunctive concept
    A concept defined by the presence of at least one of several possible features. (For example, to qualify an object must be either blue or circular.)
  17. Divergent thinking
    Thinking that produces many ideas or alternatives; a major element in original or creative thought.
  18. Fixation
    The tendency to repeat wrong solutions or faulty responses, especially as a result of becoming blind to alternatives.
  19. Flexibility
    In tests of creativity, flexibility is indicated by the number of different types of solutions produced.
  20. Fluency
    In tests of creativity, fluency refers to the total number of solutions produced.
  21. Framing
    In thought, the terms in which a problem is stated or the way that it is structured.
  22. Functional fixedness
    A rigidity in problem solving caused by an inability to see new uses for familiar objects.
  23. Functional solution
    A detailed, practical, and workable solution.
  24. g-factor
    A general ability factor or core of general intellectual ability that involves reasoning, problem-solving ability, knowledge, memory, and successful adaptation to one’s surroundings.
  25. General solution
    A solution that correctly states the requirements for success but not in enough detail for further action.
  26. Giftedness
    Either the possession of a high IQ or special talents or aptitudes.
  27. Grammar
    A set of rules for combining language units into meaningful speech or writing.
  28. Group intelligence test
    Any intelligence test that can be administered to a group of people with minimal supervision.
  29. Heuristic
    Any strategy or technique that aids problem solving, especially by limiting the number of possible solutions to be tried.
  30. Illogical thought
    Thought that is intuitive, haphazard, or irrational.
  31. Image
    Most often, a mental representation that has picture-like qualities; an icon.
  32. Individual intelligence test
    A test of intelligence designed to be given to a single individual by a trained specialist.
  33. Inductive thought
    Thinking in which a general rule or principle is gathered from a series of specific examples; for instance, inferring the laws of gravity by observing many falling objects.
  34. Insight
    A sudden mental reorganization of a problem that makes the solution obvious.
  35. Intelligence
    An overall capacity to think rationally, act purposefully, and deal effectively with the environment.
  36. Intelligence quotient (IQ)
    An index of intelligence defined as a person’s mental age divided by his or her chronological age and multiplied by 100.
  37. Intuition
    Quick, impulsive thought that does not make use of formal logic or clear reasoning.
  38. Language
    • Words or symbols, and rules for combining them, that are used for thinking and communication.
  39. Logical thought
    Drawing conclusions on the basis of formal principles of reasoning.
  40. Mental age
    The average mental ability people display at a given age.
  41. Mental retardation (developmentally disabled)
    The presence of a developmental disability, a formal IQ score below 70, or a significant impairment of adaptive behavior.
  42. Morphemes
    The smallest meaningful units in a language, such as syllables or words.
  43. Multiple intelligences
    Howard Gardner’s theory that there are several specialized types of intellectual ability.
  44. Normal curve
    A bell-shaped curve characterized by a large number of scores in a middle area, tapering to very few extremely high and low scores
  45. Originality
    In tests of creativity, originality refers to how novel or unusual solutions are.
  46. Performance intelligence
    Intelligence measured by solving puzzles, assembling objects, completing pictures, and other nonverbal tasks.
  47. Phonemes
    The basic speech sounds of a language.
  48. Prototype
    An ideal model used as a prime example of a particular concept.
  49. Random search strategy
    Trying possible solutions to a problem in a more or less random order.
  50. Relational concept
    A concept defined by the relationship between features of an object or between an object and its
  51. Representativeness heuristic
    A tendency to select wrong answers because they seem to match pre-existing mental categories.
  52. Semantics
    The study of meanings in words and language.
  53. Syntax
    Rules for ordering words when forming sentences.
  54. Transformation rules
    Rules by which a simple declarative sentence may be changed to other voices or forms (past tense, passive voice, and so forth).
  55. Twin study
    A comparison of the characteristics of twins who were raised together or separated at birth; used to identify the relative impact of heredity and environment.
  56. Two-way bilingual education
    A program in which English-speaking children and children with limited English proficiency are taught half the day in English and half in a second language.
  57. Understanding
    In problem solving, a deeper compression of the nature of the problem.
  58. Verbal intelligence
    Intelligence measured by answering questions involving vocabulary, general information, arithmetic, and other language- or symbol-oriented tasks.

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