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2011-11-10 00:48:08

chapter 9
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  1. Adaptive behaviors
    Actions that aid attempts to survive and adapt to changing conditions.
  2. Androgen
    Any of a number of male sex hormones, especially testosterone.
  3. Anorexia nervosa
    Active self-starvation or a sustained loss of appetite that has psychological origins.
  4. Arousal theory
    Assumes that people prefer to maintain ideal, or comfortable, levels of arousal.
  5. Attribution
    The mental process of assigning causes to events. In emotion, the process of attributing arousal to a particular source.
  6. Autonomic nervous system (ANS)
    The system of nerves that connects the brain with the internal organs and glands.
  7. Basic needs
    The first four levels of needs in Maslow’s hierarchy; lower needs tend to be more potent than higher needs.
  8. Behavioral dieting
    Weight reduction based on changing exercise and eating habits, rather than temporary self-starvation.
  9. Bulimia nervosa
    Excessive eating (gorging) usually followed by self-induced vomiting and/or taking laxatives.
  10. Cannon-Bard theory
    States that activity in the thalamus causes emotional feelings and bodily arousal to occur simultaneously.
  11. Circadian rhythms
    Cyclical changes in bodily functions and arousal levels that vary on a schedule approximating a 24-hour day.
  12. Control questions
    In a polygraph exam, questions that almost always provoke anxiety.
  13. Drive
    The psychological expression of internal needs or valued goals. For example, hunger, thirst, or a drive for success.
  14. Emotion
    A state characterized by physiological arousal, changes in facial expression, gestures, posture, and subjective feelings.
  15. Emotional appraisal
    Evaluating the personal meaning of a stimulus or situation.
  16. Emotional expression
    Outward signs that an emotion is occurring.
  17. Emotional feelings
    The private, subjective experience of having an emotion.
  18. Emotional intelligence
    Emotional competence, including empathy, self-control, self-awareness, and other skills.
  19. Episodic drive
    A drive that occurs in distinct episodes.
  20. Erogenous zones
    Areas of the body that produce pleasure and/or provoke erotic desire.
  21. Estrogen
    Any of a number of female sex hormones.
  22. Estrus
    Changes in the sexual drives of animals that create a desire for mating; particularly used to refer to females in heat.
  23. Excitement phase
    The first phase of sexual response, indicated by initial signs of sexual arousal.
  24. Extracellular thirst
    Thirst caused by a reduction in the volume of fluids found between body cells.
  25. Extrinsic motivation
    Motivation based on obvious external rewards, obligations, or similar factors.
  26. Facial feedback hypothesis
    States that sensations from facial expressions help define what emotion a person feels.
  27. Goal
    The target or objective of motivated behavior.
  28. Growth needs
    In Maslow’s hierarchy, the higher level needs associated with self-actualization.
  29. Hierarchy of human needs
    Abraham Maslow’s ordering of needs, based on their presumed strength or potency.
  30. Homeostasis
    A steady state of bodily equilibrium.
  31. Hypothalamus
    A small area at the base of the brain that regulates many aspects of motivation and emotion, especially hunger, thirst, and sexual behavior.
  32. Incentive value
    The value of a goal above and beyond its ability to fill a need.
  33. Intracellular thirst
    Thirst triggered when fluid is drawn out of cells due to an increased concentration of salts and minerals outside the cell.
  34. Intrinsic motivation
    Motivation that comes from within, rather than from external rewards; motivation based on personal enjoyment of a task or activity.
  35. James-Lange theory
    States that emotional feelings follow bodily arousal and come from awareness of such arousal.
  36. Kinesics
    Study of the meaning of body movements, posture, hand gestures, and facial expressions; commonly called body language.
  37. Meta-needs
    n Maslow’s hierarchy, needs associated with impulses for self-actualization
  38. Motivation
    Internal processes that initiate, sustain, and direct activities.
  39. Need
    An internal deficiency that may energize behavior.
  40. Need for achievement (nAch)
    The desire to excel or meet some internalized standard of excellence.
  41. Need for power
    The desire to have social impact and control over others.
  42. Orgasm
    A climax and release of sexual excitement.
  43. Parasympathetic branch
    A part of the autonomic system that quiets the body and conserves energy.
  44. Parasympathetic rebound
    Excess activity in the parasympathetic nervous system following a period of intense emotion.
  45. Physiological changes (in emotion)
    Alterations in heart rate, blood pressure, perspiration, and other involuntary responses.
  46. Plateau phase
    The second phase of sexual response during which physical arousal is further heightened.
  47. Polygraph
    A device for recording heart rate, blood pressure, respiration, and galvanic skin response; commonly called a “lie detector.”
  48. Primary emotions
    According to Robert Plutchik’s theory, the most basic emotions are fear, surprise, sadness, disgust, anger, anticipation, joy, and acceptance.
  49. Primary motives
    Innate motives based on biological needs.
  50. Resolution
    The fourth phase of sexual response, involving a return to lower levels of sexual tension and arousal.
  51. Response
    Any action, glandular activity, or other identifiable behavior.
  52. Schachter’s cognitive theory
    States that emotions occur when physical arousal is labeled or interpreted on the basis of experience and situational cues.
  53. Secondary motives
    Motives based on learned needs, drives, and goals.
  54. Set point (for fat)
    The proportion of body fat that tends to be maintained by changes in hunger and eating.
  55. Sex drive
    The strength of one’s motivation to engage in sexual behavior.
  56. Sexual orientation
    One’s degree of emotional and erotic attraction to members of the same sex, opposite sex, or both sexes.
  57. Sexual script
    An unspoken mental plan that defines a “plot,” dialogue, and actions expected to take place in a sexual encounter.
  58. Social motives
    Learned motives acquired as part of growing up in a particular society or culture.
  59. Stimulus motives
    Innate needs for stimulation and information
  60. Sympathetic branch
    A part of the ANS that activates the body at times of stress.
  61. Test anxiety
    High levels of arousal and worry that seriously impair test performance.
  62. Yerkes-Dodson law
    A summary of the relationships among arousal, task complexity, and performance.