med terms ch. 7 and 8

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med terms ch. 7 and 8
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med terms ch. 7 and 8
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  1. carbon dioxide
    • tasteless, colorless, odorless gas produced by body cells during the metabolic process
    • a product of cell respiraiton, it is carried by the blood to the lungs and exhaled
  2. carilage
    • tough, elastic connective tissue that is more ridig than ligaments but less dense than bone
    • the tip of the nose adn outer ear
  3. cilia
    • any hairlike strucure
    • cilia in the trachea move particles upward to teh pharnx, where they are removed by coughing, sneezing or swallowing. this mechanism is called the cilia escalator. habitual smoking destroys teh cilia escalator.
  4. diffuse
    moving or spreading out of a substance at random, rather than by chemical reaction or appliaton of external forces
  5. mucous membrane
    moist tissue layer lining hollow organs and cavities of the body that opens to the environment, also called mucosa
  6. oxygen
    • tasteless, odorless, colorless gas essential for human respiraiton
    • makes up about 1/5 by volume of the atmosphere
  7. septum
    wall dividing two cavities, such as the nasal septum, which separates the 2 nostrils
  8. serous membrane
    thin layer of tissue that covers internal body cavities, the cells of which secrete a fluid that keeps teh membrane moist; aka serosa
  9. connection between respiratory system and blood, lymph, and immune
    tonsils, adenoids, and other immune structures in teh respiratory tract protect against pathogens that enter through respiratory passageways
  10. connection between respiratory system and cardiovascular system
    respiratory system provides o2 and removes co2 from cardiac tissue
  11. connection between respiratory system and digestive
    • respiratory system provides o2 needed for digestive functions
    • respiratory system moves co2 produced by the organs of digestion
    • respiratory and digestive system share a common anatomic structure
  12. connection between respiratory system and endocrine
    respiratory system helps maintain a stable pH required for proper fuctioning of the endocrine glands
  13. female reproductive system and respiratory
    • respiration rate increases in response to sexual activity
    • fetal respiration during pregnancy
  14. genitourinary and respiratory system
    • resp system supplies o2 and removes co2 to maintain proper functioning of urinary structures
    • respiratory system helps maintain pH for gonadal hormone function
    • respiratory system assists the urinary structures in regulating pH by removing co2
  15. integumenary and respiratory system
    respiratory system furnishes o2 and disposes co2 to maintain healthy skin
  16. musculoskeletal and respiratory
    • resp provides o2 fro muscle contractiion
    • resp system eliminates co2 produced by muscles
    • resp system provides o2 for bone development
  17. nervous and respiratory system
    • resp system provides o2 for brain, spinal cord, adn sensory organ funcitons
    • resp system helps maintain a stable pH for nerual function
  18. rhinoplasty
    surgical repair of the nose
  19. sinusotomy
    • incision of anysinus
    • to improve ventilation or drainage in unresponsibe sinusitis
  20. preitonsilar
    pertaining to the area around the tonsils
  21. pharynx
    throat
  22. pharyngoscope
    instrument for examining the pharynx
  23. epiglotitis seals teh passageway traveled by air to and from the lungs, inflammation can lead to severe airway obstruction and death. epiglottitis is a medical emergency
  24. larynx
    voice box
  25. laryngoplegia
    paralysis of the vocal cords and larynx
  26. trachea
    windpipe
  27. tracheoplasty
    performed to correct a narrow or stenotic trachea
  28. bronchiectasis
    dilation of one or more bronchi
  29. bronchiolitis
    inflammation of the bronchioles
  30. pleurocentesis
    surical puncture of the pleural cavity aka thoracocetesis or thoracentesis
  31. anthracosis
    abnormal condition of coal dust in the lungs
  32. atelectasis
    incomplete expansionof the lung; aka airless lung or collapsed lung
  33. -ectasis
    dilation, expansion
  34. atel/o
    incomplete; imperfect
  35. coni/o
    dust
  36. orth/o
    straight
  37. pneumoconiosis
    condition of dust in the lungs
  38. coni/o
    dust
  39. lobectomy
    • excision of a lobe
    • performed when a malignancy is confined to a single lobe of any obed organ, such as the lungs, liver, brain, and thyroid gland
  40. orthopnea
    • breathing in a straight or upright position
    • various lung disorders cause a patient to experience difficulty breathing in any other position than sitting/standing arrect
  41. hypoxemia
    deficincy of oxygen in blood
  42. pectoralgia
    pain in hte chest; aka thoracalgia, thoracodynia, and pectorodynia
  43. steth/o
    chest
  44. phrenospasm
    involuntary contraction of the diaphragm
  45. phren/o
    diaphragm; mind
  46. spir/o
    breathe
  47. spirometer
    • instrument for measuring breathing
    • how much air the lungs can hold (vital capacity) as well as how much and how quickly air can be expelled
  48. -capnia
    carbon dioxide
  49. anosmia
    without teh sense of smell
  50. -osmia
    smell
  51. -phonia
    voice
  52. -pnea
    breathing
  53. -ptysis
    spitting
  54. anosmia
    without the sense of smell
  55. dysphonia
    impaired voice quality
  56. hemoptysis
    coughing up or spitting of blood
  57. pyothorax
    pus in the chest cavity; aka empyema
  58. py/o
    pus
  59. brady-
    slow
  60. bradypnea
    slow breathing
  61. dyspnea
    difficulty breathing
  62. acidosis
    • excessive acidity of body fluids
    • respiratory acidosis commonly associated with pulmonary insufficency and the subsequent retention of co2
  63. anosmia
    absense of the sense of smell
  64. 3 types of apnea
    obstructive, central, adn mixed
  65. asphyxia
    • condition caused by insufficient intake of oxygen
    • some common causes are drowning, electric shock, lodging of a foreign body in the respiratory tract, inhalation of toxic smoke, and poisoning
  66. atelectasis
    • collapsed or airless state of the lung, which may be acute or chronic and affect all or part of a lung
    • it's a potential complication of some surgical precedures, especially those of the chest because breathing is commonly shallow after surgery to avoid pain from the surgical incision. in fatal atelectasis, the lungs fail to expand normally at birth
  67. cheyne-Stokes respiration
    • repeated breathing pattern characterized by fluctuation in the depht of respiration, first deeply, then shallow then not at all
    • usually caused by diseases that affect teh respiratory centers of the brain
  68. coryza
    head cold; upper respiratory infection
  69. crackle
    abnormal respiratory sound heard on auscultation, caused by exudates, spasms, hyperplasia, or when air enters moistures-- filled alveoli; aka rale
  70. croup
    • common childhood condition involving inflammation of the larynx, trachea, bronchial passages, and sometimes lungs
    • signs and symptoms include a resonant, barking cough with suffocative, difficult breathing, laryngeal spasms and sometimes narrowing of the top of the air passages
  71. deviated nasal septum
    displacement of cartilage dividing the nostrils
  72. epiglottitis
    • severe,life-threatening infection of the epiglottis and supraglottic structures that occurs most commonly in children between 2-12 years of age
    • intubation or tracheostomy may be required to open the obstructed airway
  73. epistaxis
    nosebleed; nasal hemorrhage
  74. finger clubbing
    enlargement of the terminal phalanges of the fingers and toes, comonly associated with pulmonary disease
  75. hypoxia
    deficiency in oxygen in the tissues
  76. pertussis
    acute infectious disease characterized by a cough that has a "whoop" sound
  77. pleurisy
    inflammation of the pleural membrane characterized by a stabbing pain that is intensified by coughing or deep breathin; aka pleurits
  78. pneumoconiosis
    disease caused by inhaling dust particles, including dust (anthracosis), stone dust (chalicosis), iron dust (siderosis) and asbestos particles (asbestosis)
  79. coni
    dust
  80. pulmonary edema
    • accumulation of extravascular fluid in lung tissues adn alveoli, caused most commonly by heart failure
    • excessive fluid in lungs induces coughing and dyspnea
  81. pulmonary embolus
    blockage in an artery of the lungs casued by a mass of undissolved matter
  82. rhonchus
    • abnormal breath sound heard on auscultation
    • described as a course, rattling noise that resembles snoring, commonly suggesting secretions in the larger airways
  83. stridor
    high pitchced, harsh, adventious breath sound casued by a spasm or swelling of the larynx or an obstruction in the upper airway
  84. sudden infant death syndrome
    • compltely unexpected and unexplained death of an apparently normal, healthy infant, usually less than 12 months
    • rate has decreased more than 30% since parents have been instructed to place babieson their backs for sleeping raher than stomach
  85. wheeze
    • whistling or sighing sound heard on acultation that results from narrowing of the lumen of the respiratory passageway
    • characteristic of asthma, croup, hay fever, obstructive emphsema, and other obstructive respiratory conditions
  86. Mantoux test
    • intradermal test to determine tuberculin sensitivity based on a positive reaction where the area around the test site becomes red and swollen
    • a positive test sugggests a past or present exposure to TB or past TB vaccination. However, it doesn't differentiate between active and inactive infection
  87. oximetry
    • noninvasive method of monitoring the percentage of hemoglobin saturated with oxygen; aka pulse oximetry
    • a probe is attached to pateint's finger or ear lobe and linked to a computer
  88. polysomnography
    test of sleep cycles and stages using continuous recordings of brain waves, electrical activity of muscles, eye movement, respiratory rate, blood pressure, blood oxygen saturation, heart rhythm and sometmes direct observation of the person during sleep using a video camera
  89. pulmonary function tests
    multiple tests used to evaluate theability of the lungs to take inand expel air as well as perform gas exchange across the alveolocapillary membrane
  90. spirometry
    measurement of ventilatory ability by assessing lung capacity and flow, including the time necessary for exhaling the total volume of inhaled air
  91. bronchoscopy
    visual exam of the bronchi using an endoscope inserted throughthe nose or mouth and trachea for direct viewing of structures or for projection on a monitor
  92. laryngoscopy
    visual exam of the larynx to detect tumors, foreign bodies, nerve or structural injury, or other abnormalities
  93. mediastinoscopy
    • visual exam of the mediastinal structures including the heart, trachea, esophagus, bronchus, thymus and lymph nodes
    • inserted through a small inceision made above the sternum.
  94. arterial blood gas
    • test that measures partial pressure of oxygen, co2, pH, and bicarb level of an arterial blood sample
    • helps guide treament of acid-base imbalances
  95. sputum culture
    microbial test used to identify disease-causing organisms of the lower respiratory tract, especially those that cuase pneumonias
  96. sweat test
    • measurementof the amount of salt in sweat
    • to confirm cystic fibrosis
  97. throat culture
    • test used to identify pathogens, especially grouop A streptococci
    • untreated strep infections may lead to serious secondary complications, including kidney and heart disease
  98. thoracic
    images of the chest used to diagnose rib fractures and lung dseases, including atelectasis, masses, pneumonia, and emphysema
  99. lung scan
    commonly used to detect pressence of a blood clot that may be interfering with blood flow in or to the lung
  100. aerosol therapy
    lung treatment using various techniques to deliver medicationin mist form directly to teh lungs or air passageways. Techniques include nebulizers, metered-dose inhalers, and dry powder inhalers
  101. lavage
    irrigating or washing out of an organ, stomach, bladder, bowel or body cavity with a steam of water or other liquid
  102. antral
    irrigation of the antrum (maxillary sinus) in chronic or nonresponsive sinusitis
  103. postural drainage
    positioning a patient so that gravity aids in the drainage of secretions from the bronchi and lobes of the lungs
  104. pleurectomy
    • excision of part of the pleura, usually parietal
    • performed to reduce pain caused by a tumor mass or to prevent the recurrence of pleural effusion but is generally ineffective in the treatment of malignancy of the pleura
  105. rhinoplasty
    reconstruvtive surgery of the nose to correct deformities or for cosmetic purposes
  106. thoracentesis
    • surgical puncture anddrainage of the pleural cavity; aka pleurocentesis or thoracocentesis
    • performed as a diagnostic procedure to determine teh nature and cause of an effusion or as a therapeutic procedure ot relieve the discomfort caused by the effusion
  107. tracheostomy
    surgical procedure in which an opening is made in the neck adn into the trachea into which a breathing tube may be inserted
  108. antihistamines
    • block histamines from binding with histamine receptor sites in tissues.. histamines cause sneezing, runny nose, itchiness, and rashes
    • fexofenadine, lortadine
  109. antiussives
    • relieve or supress coughing by blocking the cough reflex in teh medulla of the brain
    • alleviate nonproductive dry coughs and should not be used with productive coughs
    • hydrocodone, dextromethorphan
  110. bronchodilators
    • stimulate bronchial muscles to relax, thereby expanding air passages, resulting in increased air flow
    • used to treat chronic symptoms and prevent acute attacks in respiratory diseases, wuch s asthma and COPD. Pharmacological agents may be delivered by an inhaler either orally or intravenously
    • albuterol, salmeterol
  111. corticosteroids
    • act on the immune system by blocking production of substances that trigger allergic and inflammatory actions
    • available as nasal sprays, in metered-dose-inhalers and in oral forms to treat chronic lung conditions such as asthma and COPD
  112. decongestants
    • constrict blood vessels of nasal passages and limit blood flow, which causes swollen tissues to shrink so that air can pass more freely through the passageways
    • commonly prescribed for allergies and colds and are usually combined with antihistimines in cold remedies. they can be administered orally or topically as nasal sprays and nasal drops.
    • oxymetazoline, pseudoephedrine
  113. expectorants
    • liquify respiratory secretions so that they are more readily dislodged during coughing episodes
    • prescribed for productive coughs
  114. leaflet
    thin, flattened structure; term used to describe teh leaf-shaped structures that compose a heart valve
  115. lumen
    tubular space or channel within any organ or structure within the body; space within an artery, vein, intestine or tube
  116. regurgitation
    backflow or ejecting of contents through an opening
  117. sphincter
    circular muscle found in a tubular structure or hollow organ that constricts or dilates to regulate passage of substances through its opening
  118. vasoconstriction
    narrowing of the lumen of a blood vessel that limits blood flow, usually as a result of diseases or meds
  119. casodilation
    widening of the lumen of a blood vessel caused by the relaxing of the muscles of the vascular walls
  120. viscosity
    state of being sticky or gummy
  121. cardiovascular system and blood, lymph, and immune
    cardiovascular system trasnports products of the immune system
  122. digestive and cardiovascular system
    • cardiovascular system delivers hormones that affect glandular ativity of the digestive tract
    • cardiovascular system provides vasculature to the walls of te small intestine for absorption of nutrients
  123. endocrine and cardiovascular system
    • cardiovascular system delivers oxygen and nutrients to endocrine glands
    • cardiovascular system transports hormones from glands to target organs
  124. female reproductive and cardiovascular
    • cardiovascular system transports hormones that regulate the menstrual cycle
    • cardiovascular system influences teh normal functions of sex organs, esp. erectile tissue
  125. aneurysm/o
    widened blood vessel
  126. angi/o
    vessel
  127. aneurysmorrhaphy
    suture of an aneurysm
  128. -rraphy
    suture
  129. angioplasty
    surgical repair of a vesel
  130. vasculitis
    inflamation of blood vessels
  131. aortostenosis
    narrowing of the aorta
  132. -stenosis
    narrowing
  133. arteriorrhexis
    rupture of an artery
  134. -rrhexis
    rupture
  135. arteriolits
    inflammation of an arteriole
  136. atriomegaly
    enlargement of the atrium
  137. atheroma
    • tumor of fatty plaque
    • found when fatty plaque builds up on the inner lining of arterial walls. as calcium and other minerals are absorbed by plaque, the vessel hardens
  138. embolectomy
    • removal of an embolus
    • removal of a clot or other foreign material from a blood vessel. most are blood clots that have been transported from a distant vessel by the blood
  139. hemangioma
    • tumor of blood vessels
    • in infants= birth marks
  140. phlebectasis
    expansion of a vein
  141. venostasis
    standing still of blood in a vein; aka phlebostasis
  142. sphygmoid
    resembling a pulse
  143. stenotic
    pertaining to a narrowing orstricture
  144. thrombolysis
    destruction of a blood clot
  145. angiography
    • process of recording an image of a vessel
    • commonly used to identify atherosclerosis adn diagnose heart and peripheral vascular disease
  146. asphyxia
    without a pulse aka suffocation
  147. extravascular
    relating to the area outside a vessel
  148. aneurysm
    locallized abnormal dilation of a vessel, usually an artery
  149. arrest
    • condition of being stopped or bringing to a stop
    • loss of effective cardiac function, results in cessation of circulation
    • cardiac arrest may be due to ventricular fibrillation or asystole in which there is no observable myocardial activity
  150. circiulatory arrest
    cessation of the circulation of blood due to ventricular standstill or fibrillation
  151. arrhthmia
    inability of the heart to maintain a normal sinus rhythm, possibly incluiding a rapid or slow beat or "skipping" a beat; aka dysrhythmia
  152. bruit
    soft blowing sound heard on auscultation, possibly due to vibrations associated with the movement of blood, valvular action or moth; aka murmur
  153. cardiomyopahty
    any disease or weakening of heart muscel that diminishes cardiac function
  154. coarctation
    narrowing of a vessel, especially the aorta
  155. deep vein thrombosis
    • blood clot that forms in the deep veins of the bod, especially those in legs or thighs
    • in DVT, blood clots may break away from the vein wall and travel in teh body. if they lodge in the lung, the condition is pulmonary embolism.
  156. ejection fraction
    calculation of how much blood a ventricle can eject with one contraction
  157. heart failure
    • failure of hte heart to supply an adequate amount of blood to tissues and organs
    • commonly caused by impaired cornoary blood flow, cardiomyopathies, and heart valve disease
  158. embolus
    mass of undissovd matter (foreign object, air, gas, tissue thrombus) circulating in blood or lymphatic channels until it beomes lodged in a vessel
  159. fibrilation
    • quivering or spotaneous muscle contractions, especially of the heart causing ineffectual contractions
    • commonly corrected with a defibrillator
  160. homeostasis
    arrest of bleeding or circulation
  161. hyperlipidemia
    excessive amounts of lipids in the blood
  162. hypertension
    • common disorder characterized by elevated blood pressure persistently exceeding 140mm Hg systolic or 90 mm Hg diastolic
    • no identifiable cause; aka essential hypertension
    • primary hypertension is most comon form of hypertension and is associated with obesity, high serum sodium level, hypercholesterolemia, or family history
  163. secondary hypertension
    identifiable cause commonly correctable cause
  164. hypertensive heart disease
    any heart disorder caused by prolonged hypertension, including left ventricular hypertrophy, coronary artery disease, cardiac arrhthias, and heart failure
  165. implantable cardioverterdefibrillator
    • implantable battery-powered divice that monitors and automatically corrects ventricular tachyardia or fibrillation by sending electrical impulses to teh heart
    • in ventricular fibrillation, the heart quivers rather than beats, and blood is not pmped to teh brain. unless treatment is received within 5-10 minutes, it causes death
  166. infarct
    area of tissue that undergoes necrosis folllowing cessation of blood supply
  167. ischemia
    local and temporary deficiency of blood suppply due to circulatory obstruction
  168. mitral valve prolapse
    • common and occasionally serious conditoin in which the leaflets of the mitral valve prolapse into the left atrium during systole causing a characteristic murmur heard on auscultation
    • common signs and symptoms of MVP include palpitations of the heart and occasionally, panic attacks with pouding heart beat. becasuseof the possibiility of valve infection, prophylactic treatment with antibiotics is suggested before undergoing invasive procedures such as dental work
  169. radioisotope
    chemical radioactive material used as a tracer to follow a substance through the body or a structure
  170. palpitation
    • sensation that the heart is not beating normally, possibly including "thumping," fluttering skipped beats or a pounding feeling in the chest
    • although most palpitations are harmless, those caused by arrhthmias may be serious. medical attentionshould be sought if palpitations are accompanied by pain, dizziness, overall weakness or shortness of breath
  171. patent ductus arteriosus
    failure of teh ductus arteriosus to close after birth, allowing blood to flow from the aorta into the pulmonary artery
  172. perfusion
    circulation of blood through tissues or the passage of fluids through vessels of an organ
  173. tetralogy of Fallot
    • congenital anomaly consisting of 4 elements:
    • 1. pulmonary artery stenosis
    • 2. interventricular septal defect
    • 3. transposition of the aorta so that both ventricles empty into the aorta
    • 4. right ventricular hypertrophy caused by increased workload of the right ventricle
  174. stent
    • slender or threadlike device used to hold open vessels, tubes, or obstructed arteries
    • used to support tubular structures that are being anastomed or to induce or maintain patency within these tubular structures
  175. thrombus
    blood clot that obstructs a vessel
  176. cardiac catheterization
    • passage of a catheter into the heart through a vein or artery to provide a comprehensive evaluation of the heart
    • tathers info about the heart such as blood supply through the cornary arteries andblood flow and pressure in the chambers of the heart as well as enabling blood sample collection and x rays of the heart
  177. Holter monitor test
    • ecg taken with a small pportable recording system capable of storing up to 24 hours of ecg tracings
    • useful in obtaining a cardiac arrhythmia record that would be missed during an ecg of only a few minutes duration
  178. nuclear ecg
    ecg that utilizes a radig that utilizes a radioisotope to evaluate boronary blood flow
  179. stress test
    ecg taken under ontrolled exercise stress conditions
  180. cardiac enzyme studies
    • blood test that measures troponin T, troponiin I, and creatine kinase
    • cardiac enzymes are relased into the bloodstream from damaged heart muscle tissue. their pressencein a blood specimen is consistent with myocardial damage
  181. lipid panel
    series of tests used to assess risk factors of ischemic heaert disease
  182. angiography
    radiographic imagingg of the heart and blood vessels after injection of a contrast dye
  183. coronary angiography
    • angiography to determine the degree of obstructionof the ateries that supply blood to the heart
    • a catheter is inserted into teh femoral artery and threated to teh aorta. the contrast dye outlines the coronary arteries and shows narrowing, steosis, or blockage
  184. digital subtraction angiography
    angiography in which two radiographic images are obtained, the first one without contrast material and the second one after a contrast material ahs been injected, and then compared by a computer that digitally subtracts teh images of soft tissues, bones, and muscles, leaving only the image of vessels with contrast
  185. aortography
    radiological exam of the aorta and its branches following injection of a contrast medium via a catheter
  186. echocardiography
    • noninvasive diagnostic method that uses ultrasound to visualize internal cardiac structures and produce images of the heart
    • a transducer is placed on teh chest to direct ultra-high-freqency sound waves toward cardiac structures. reflected echoes are then converted to electrical impulses and displayed on a screen
  187. doppler ultrasound
    • noninvasive adaptation of ultrasound technology in which blood flow velocity is assessed in different areas of the heart
    • sound waves strike moving red blood cells and are reflected back to a recording device that graphically records blood flow through cardiac structures
  188. magnetic resonance imaging
    noninvasive technique that uses radiowaves adn a strong magnetic field, rather than an xray beam, to produce multiplanar cross-sectoinal images of blood vessels
  189. multiple-gated acquistion
    • nuclear procedure that uses radioactive tracers to produce movie-like images of the structures of the heart, including the myocardium and the mitral and tricuspid valves
    • teh MUGA scan shows the motion of the heart wall muscle and the ventricle's ability to eject blood (ejection fraction)
  190. phonocardiography
    imaging technique that provides a graphic dispay of heart sounds and during the cardiac cycle
  191. scintigraphy
    • diagnostic test that uses radiationemitted by teh body after an injection of radioactive substances to create images of various organs or identify body functions and diseases
    • identifies infarcted or scarred areas of the heart that show up as "cold spots" (areas of reduced radioactivity) taken when the patient is at rest
  192. thallium study (resting)
    scintigraphy procedure that uses injected radioactive thallium and records the uptake of the isotope with a gamma camera to produce an image
  193. venography
    • radiography of a vein after injectionof a contrast medium to detect incomplte filling of a vein, which indicates obstruction
    • used to locate blood clots in veins of the leg
  194. cardioversion
    procedure to restore normal rhythm of the heart by applying a controlled electrical shock to the exterior of the chest
  195. embolization
    • technique used to block blood flow to a site by passing a catheter to the area and injecting a synthetic material or medication specially designed to occlude teh blood vessel
    • may serve to eliminate an abnormal communication between an artery and a vein, stop bleeding, or close vessels that are supporting tumor growth
  196. sclerotherapy
    • injection of a chemical irritant (sclerosing agent) into a vein to produce inflammation and fibrosis that destroys the lumen of the vein
    • commonly performed to treat caricose veins and sometmes telangiectasias
  197. angioplasty
    PROCEDURE THAT ALTERS A VESSEL THROUGH SURGERY OR DILATION OF THE VESSEL USING A BALLOON CATHETER
  198. cornoary artery bypass graft
    surgical procedure that uses a vessel graft from another part of the body to bypass the blocked part of a coronary artery and resore blood supply to the heart muscle
  199. percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasty
    • dilation of an occluded vessel using a balloon catheter under fluorscopic guidance
    • teh physician inserts a catheter transcutaneously, inflates the baloon thereby dilating the narrowed vessel, and commonly positions a stent to hold the vessel open
  200. atherectomy
    removal of material from an occluded vessel using a specially designed catheter fitted with a cutting or grinding divice
  201. biopsy
    removal and examination of a small piece of tissue for diagnostic purpose
  202. arterial biopsy
    removal and examination of a segment of an arterial vessel wall to confirm inflammation of the wall or arteritis, a type of vasculitis
  203. catheter ablation
    • destruction of conduction tissue of the heart to interrupt the abnormal conduction pathway causing arrhthmia, thus allowing normal heart rhythm to resume
    • catheter ablation is usually performed under fluoroscoopic guidance
  204. commissurotomy
    • surgical separation of the leaflets of the mitral valve which have fused together at their "commissures" (points of touching)
    • many candidates for commissurotomy are now treated with balloon mitral valvuloplasty
  205. laster ablation
    • procedure used to remove or treat varicose veins
    • teh laster's heat coagulates blood inside the vessel, cauising it to collapse and seal. later, the vessels dissolve within the body, becoming less visible or disapear all together
  206. ligation and stripping
    • tying a varicose vein followed by removal of the affected segment
    • performed for heavily damaged or diseased veins. usual treatment for varicose veins is laster ablation in combination with microphlbectomies and sclerotherapy
  207. open hart surgery
    • surgical procedure performed on or within the exposed heart, usually with the assisstance of a heart-lung machine
    • during the operation the heart-lung machine takes over circulation to allow surgery on the resting heart. after the heart has been restarted and is beating, the patiet is disconnected from the heart-lung machine. types of open heart surgery include coronary artery bypass graft, valve replacement and heart transplant
  208. pericardiocentesis
    puncturing of the pericardium to remove excess fluid from the pericardial sac or to test for protein, sugar, and enzymes or determine the causative organism of pericarditis
  209. thrombolysis
    • destruction of a blood clot using anticlotting agents called clot-busters, such as tissue plasminogen activator
    • prompt thrombolysis can restore blood flow to tissue before irreversible damage occurs. however many of htse also pose risk of hemorrhage
  210. intravascular thrombolysis
    infusion of a thrombolytic agent into a vessel to dissolve a blood clot
  211. valvotomy
    incision of a valve to increase teh size of the opening; sed in treating mitral stenosis
  212. venipuncture
    puncture of a ven by a needle attached to a syringe or catheter to withdraw a specimen of blood; aka phlebotomy
  213. angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors
    • lower bp by inhibitng the conversion of angiotension I ( an inactive enzyme) to angiotensin II (a potent vasoconstrictor)
    • used to treat hypertension alone or with other agents and aid in the management of heart failure
    • benzepril, captopril
  214. antiarrhythmics
    • prevent, alleviate, or correct cardiac arrhthmias by stabilizing the electrical conduction of the heart
    • flecinide
    • treat atrial and ventricular dysrhythmias
  215. beta-blockers
    • block the effect of adrenaline on beta receptors, which slow nerve impulses that pass through the heart, thereby causing a decrease heart rate and contractility
    • perscribed for hypertension, angiona, and arrthmias
    • atenolol, metoprolol
  216. calclium channel blockers
    • block movement of calcium (required for blood vessel contraction) into myocardial cells and arterial walls, causing heart rate and blood pressure to decrease
    • calcium channel blockers are used to treat angina pectoris, hypertension, arrhythmias, and hart failure
    • amlodipine, diltiazem, nifedipine
  217. diuretics
    • act on kidneys to increase excretion of water and sodium
    • reduce fluid buildup in the body, including fluid in the lungs, a common symptom of heart failrue. also used to treat hypertension.
    • furosemide
  218. nitrates
    • dilate blood vessels of the heart, causing an increasein the amount of oxygen delivered to teh myocardium, and incresae in teh amount of oxygen delivered to the myocardium, and decrease venous return and arterial resistance, which decreases myocardial oxygen demand and relieves angina
    • can be administered in several ways; sublingually as a spray or tablet, orally as a tablet, trasdermally as a patch, topically as an ointment, or intravenously in an emergency situation
    • nitroglycerin
  219. peripheral vasodilators
    • peripheral vasodilators treat peripheral vascular diseases, diabetc peripheral vascular insufficency and Raynaud disease
    • cyclandelate, isoxsuprine
  220. statins
    • lower cholesterol in teh blood and reduce its production in the liver by blocking teh enzyme that produces it
    • atorvastatin, simvastatin, simbastatin and ezetimibe

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