Astronomy test #3

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Astronomy test #3
2011-11-10 04:01:50
astronomy brian

astronomy test
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  1. greenhouse effect
    thermal radiation being trapped into the atmosphere
  2. shepherd moon
    moons that orbit arount the edge of planetary rings, stabelizing it
  3. hydrothermal vent
    very hot springs located in the deep ocean that presented us with the idea of life living without sunlight.
  4. tidal heating
    keeps moons young and hot by the constant squeezing and releasing from planets.
  5. comet
    they appear to move across the sky slowly, they have a structure that consists of a nucleus and a tail
  6. nucleus of a comet
    1-50miles in diameter it is the solid central part of the comet termed "the dirty snowball"
  7. Coma
    halo of gas and dust sorrounding the nucleus can be extremely long.
  8. gas tail
    straight gas tail from disintigrating objects
  9. Dust tail
    curved and points away from the sun
  10. long period
    poriod > 200 years these come from the oort cloud and there are 12 new ones founded each year
  11. short period comets
    perios < 200 years, 100 known, come fromt eh kaiper belt, usually long period comets "captured into shorter orbits, eventually burn out or crash, disintegrate
  12. Oort Cloud
    cloud of comets that is one of the furthest from our sun, the other clouds are less than a thousandth of the distance from this cloud to the sun
  13. Kuiper belt
    a region of the solar system extended past the planets where it is similar to the astroid belt however it is far larger in size, home to more frozen volatiles, such as pluto. A swarm of icy planetesimals
  14. asteroid
    100,000 visible, irregular shaped, many are binary, very far from another, small rocky, metalic objects of the solar system.
  15. meteoriod
    piece of interplanetary debris
  16. meteor
    streak of light made by a meteoroid entering our atmosphere
  17. meteorite
    meteoroid that survives earth's surface
  18. stones
    1 out of three types of meteorites and it is 95%of all metors
  19. Irons
    1 out of three types of metorites and it comprises of 4% of all meteors
  20. stoney-irons
    1 out of three types of meteorites and it comprises of 1% of all meteors found
  21. Meteor shower
    occur when earth passes through the trail of debris in a comets orbit.
  22. radiant
    the constellation from which metors seem to radiate
  23. nuclear fission
    splitting of a large atomic nucleus
  24. nuclear fusion
    combining, joining of small atomic nucleui
  25. neutrino
    similar to electrons however they are neutrally charged and they pass through all solid objects, a typical product of nuclear fusion
  26. helioseismology
    the study of sun quakes
  27. suns core
    where the fusion occurs
  28. radiation zone
    in between the core and convection zone
  29. convection zone
    circulation rapidly bringing heat to the sun's surface
  30. 3 parts of the sun
    • 1) core
    • 2) radiation zone
    • 3) convection zone
  31. differential rotation
    when not all part of the planet moves at the same speed as others when rotating
  32. photosphere
    visible surface of the sun, contains sunspots
  33. chromosphere
    irregular layers of gas above photosphere
  34. corona
    extends out past all the polanets as the solar wind
  35. 3 layers of the suns atmosphere
    • photosphere
    • chronosphere
    • corona
  36. solar wind
    stream of charged particals ejected from the upper atmosphere of the sun
  37. sunspot
    cooler, darker areas caused by "tangles" in the suns mag feild, the number of them peak ever 11 years
  38. Why is the impact theory favored for the birth of the moon?
    moon rocks are similar to earth rocks and not much of it has iron, it is less denser and missing and atmosphere with everything that could have been easily vaporized.
  39. mare
    dark lava filled impact basins
  40. Mercury has what surface features
    heavily cratered, caloris basin, extreme temperatures, very high in the day, very low at night.
  41. Venus
    cloud covered, extremely bright, sulfuric acid clouds, however atmosphere is carbon dioxide, temp is always 900 degrees. It has similar density composition and distance and size as earth
  42. Mars features
    olympus mons, biggest volcano, valles marineris biggest canyon, mars is very cold and dry
  43. moons of mars
    • phobos
    • deimos
    • both were thought to be captured asteroids
  44. jovian planets are composed of
    hydrogen and helium
  45. Moons of jupiter
    • Io: most volcanically active
    • Europa: very young ice surface over a water ocean