Endocrine System

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Author:
denali1316
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115866
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Endocrine System
Updated:
2011-11-10 02:22:03
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endocrine system
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endocrine system terms
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  1. adrenal cortex
    outer section of each adrenal gland, secretes cortisol, aldosterone, and sex hormones
  2. adrenal medulla
    inner section of each adrenal gland, secretes epinephrine and norepinephrine
  3. ovaries
    located in the lower abdomen of a female, responsible for egg production, estrogen and progesterone
  4. pancreas
    exocrine and endocrine gland, regulates blood sugar by releasing insulin
  5. parathyroid glands
    four small glands mobilizes calcium in the blood and body
  6. pineal gland
    center of the brain, secretes melatonin
  7. pituitary gland
    "master gland" located on sella turcica, secretes growth hormone, antidiuretic hormone, oxytocin, and many others
  8. adenohypophysis
    anterior lobe, secretes growth hormone, thyroid-stimulating hormone, adrenocorticotropic hormone, gonadotropic hormone and prolactin
  9. neurohypophysis
    posterior lobe, secretes antidiuretic hormone and oxytocin
  10. testes
    two glands enclosed in the scrotal sac of a male, responsible for sperm production and testosterone production
  11. thyroid
    located in the neck on either side of the trachea, secretes thyroxine which increases metabolism in body cells
  12. cortisol
    secreted by adrenal cortex, increases blood sugar, is secreted in times of stress
  13. epinephrine
    AKA adrenaline, fight or flight response, increases blood pressure and heart rate
  14. glucagon
    secreted by islet cells of the pancreas, precursor- breaks down glucose
  15. insulin
    secreted by pancreas, helps glucose get into body
  16. somatotropin
    growth hormone, secreted by pituitary gland
  17. vasopressin
    antidiuretic hormone, secreted by the pituitary gland
  18. homeostasis
    tendency of an organism to maintain a constant internal environment
  19. hormone
    substance, travels thru the blood to a distant organ or gland
  20. target tissue
    cells of an organ that are affected or stimulated by specific hormones
  21. adenectomy
    removal of a gland
  22. adrenopathy
    disease of adrenal gland
  23. adrenalectomy
    removal of an adrenal gland
  24. gonadotropin
    ovaries and testes stimulate gonads
  25. pancreatectomy
    removal of the pancreas
  26. parathyroidectomy
    removal of the parathyroid
  27. hypopituitarism
    is a condition in which the pituitary gland does not produce normal amounts of some or all of its hormones
  28. thyrotropin
    a hormone produced by the pituitary gland
  29. thyroiditis
    inflammed thyroid gland
  30. hypercalcemia
    too much calcium in the blood
  31. hypocalcemia
    not enough calcium in the blood
  32. endocrinologist
    diagnose diseases that affect people's glands
  33. polydipsia
    dehydration causes thrist
  34. myxedema
    mucus-like material accumulates under the skin
  35. hypoatremia
    there isn't enough sodium in the body fluids outside the cells
  36. hypokalemia
    can occur in dehydration and with excessive vomiting and diarrhea, the heart is particularly sensitive to potassium loss
  37. thyrotoxicosis
    condition caused by excessive thyroid gland activity and oversecretion of thyroid hormone
  38. hypoglycemia
    not enough sugar in the blood
  39. glycosuria
    sugar in the urine
  40. euthyroid
    normal thyroid
  41. hyperkalemia
    too much potassium in the blood
  42. hyperthyroidism
    overactivity of the thyroid gland ex. Graves disease
  43. hypothyroidism
    underactivity of the thyroid gland
  44. hypoparathyroidism
    excessive production of parathormone
  45. Cushing syndrome
    group of signs and symptoms produced by excess cortisol from the adrenal cortex
  46. Addison disease
    hypofunctioning of the adrenal cortex
  47. hyperinsulinism
    excess secretion of insulin causing hypoglycemia
  48. diabetes mellitus
    lack of insulin secretion or resistance of insulin in promoting sugar, starch and fat metabolism in cells
  49. diabetes mellitus type 1
    an autoimmune disease, it requires patients ot monitor their blood glucose levels several times a day using a glucometer
  50. diabetes mellitus type 2
    patients are usually older, obesity is very common, primary defect: insulin resistance
  51. acromegaly
    hypersecretion of growth hormone from the anterior pituitary after puberty, leading to enlargement of extremities
  52. gigantism
    hypersecretion of growth hormone from the anterior pituitary before puberty, leading to abnormal overgrowth of body tissues
  53. dwarfism
    congenital hyposecretion of growth hormone
  54. panhypopituitarism
    deficiency of all pituitary hormones
  55. diabetes insipidus
    insufficient secretion of antidiuretic hormone
  56. fasting blood sugar
    aka fasting plasma glucose, measures circulates glucose level in a patient who has fasted at least 8 hours
  57. thyroid function test
    measurement of T3, T4 and TSH in the bloodstream
  58. exopthalmometry
    measurement of eyeball protrusion ( as in Graves disease)
  59. radioactive iodine uptake
    radioactive iodine is administered orally, and its uptake by the thyroid gland is imaged to assess thyroid function
  60. endocrine
    hormones secreted directly into blood stream

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