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- applies to simple transitive verbs
- theme argument is realized as subject
- agent argument downgraded to oblique/suppressed
no argument is upgraded following downgrading of agent
- 'non-referring' element equivalent to English it or there
- It seems that there are three people at the door.
subject corresponds to object of preposition in matching active structures
- active: several people have already talked about that idea.
- passive: that idea has already been talked about by several people.
indirect or adversity (adversative) passive
- experiencer occurs as subject
- frequently have an 'adversative' meaning in that the referent of the subject is seen as adversely affected by situation described in sentence