Third Science Test

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Third Science Test
2011-11-10 20:18:03
science bio anatomy

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  1. Interphase
    • G1, S, G2
    • Everything in cell cycle except for the mitosis
  2. Mitosis
    • the process that separated duplicated chromosomes into 2 parts
    • includes prophase metaphase anaphase telophase
  3. Cytokinesis
    • division of cytoplasm during M phase
    • animals: pinches off
    • plants: cell plate forms
  4. Prophase
    • 1st phase of mitosis
    • Chromatin coils so tightly that chromosomes appear
    • Nucleoli, nuclear envelope dissappear
    • 2 pairs of centrioles move to opposite poles
    • spindle fibers (microtubules) extend from centriole to centromere
    • asters radiate from centrioles
  5. Diploid
    • 2n
    • Number of chromosomes
  6. Haploid
    • n
    • Half the number of chromosomes
  7. Metaphase
    • 2nd phase of mitosis
    • doubled chromosomes line up on equatorial plane (metaphase plane)
  8. Anaphase
    • 3rd phase of mitosis
    • chromatids seperate
  9. Telophase
    • Considered the opposite of prophase
    • enviro reforms
    • spindle fibers resolve
    • nucleoli reappear
    • cytokinesis
    • formation of daughter cells
  10. Chromosome structure
    • Rod-shaped structures made of DNA and protein
    • In eukaryotes, DNA wraps around proteins called histones to help maintain the compact structure of chromosomes
    • Chromosomes in prokaryotes are simpler
    • Before, DNA in chromatin
    • We have 46, 23 from each parent
  11. Epithelial tissue
    • Often appears as a continuous sheet of cells
    • simple or stratified
    • squamos cuboidal or columnal
    • found in skin, walls of blood vessels, air sacs in lungs, cheek
    • function: protection, absorbtion
    • characteristics: avascular (no blood vessels), no extracellular matrix, cells packed together
  12. Simple vs stratified (epithelial)
    • Simple: contains one layer of cells, named by shape of cells
    • Stratified: contains multiple layers, named by shape of apical cells
  13. Shapes in tissues
    • Squamos: flat
    • cubodial: cubed
    • columnal: cylindrical
  14. Connective tissue
    • Most abundant and variable tissue type
    • cells not in direct contact since volume of extra-cellular matrix is greater than the volume occupied by cells
    • function: connects organs, gives support and protection (physical and immune), storage of energy and heat production, movement and transport of materials
    • 6 types
  15. 6 types of connective tissue
    • 1) Fibrous loose- between tissues and organs
    • 2) Dense fibrous- tendons (muscle to bone) and ligaments (bone to bone, ligaments don't heal well)
    • 3) Cartilage- covering bones between vertebrae
    • 4) Bone- skeleton, calcified
    • 5) Adipose- fat under skin, insolation and energy, storage
    • 6) Blood- blood vessels, transport, extracellular matrix is fluid
  16. Muscle tissue
    • Characteristics: closely packed, little extracellular matrix, contraction--> actin and myosin
    • Stem cells can form more muscle
    • 3 types
    • Skeletal- attached to bone, striated (voluntary), each fiber multinucleated, can't divide
    • Cardiac- heart, striated, involuntary, can't divide, lack stem cells (think myocardial arrest)
    • Smooth muscle- not striated, CAN divide, walls of blood vessels and hollow organs (bladder and stomach), with intercalated discs
  17. Tissue/organ/organ system
    • Tissue: organization of similar cells that perform a specific function
    • Organ: organization of diff kinds of tissues that together perform a specific function
    • Organ system: various kinds of organs that together perform a specific function (ex: nervous)
  18. Anatomy/histology/physiology
    • Anatomy: the study of structure of an organism and the relationship of its parts
    • Histology: study of tissues
    • Physiology: study of the functions of the body
  19. Anatomical position
    • Person standing erect
    • feet flat on floor
    • arms at side
    • palms, eyes, face facing forward

    frame of reference for descriptions and dissection
  20. Nervous tissue
    • Function: sensory and conducts an impulse
    • Characteristics: dendrites and axons

    • types: glial and neurons
    • neurons can't reproduce
  21. Superficial and deep
    • Superficial: toward surface of the body
    • Deep: away from surface of the body
  22. Proximal and distal
    • closer to and farther from the origin of body
    • LIMBS
  23. Right and left
    Like stage right and left
  24. Dorsal and ventral
    Back and belly
  25. Anterior and posterior
    Front and back
  26. Frontal
    Divides anterior and posterior
  27. Superior and inferior
    Toward head and toward feet
  28. Sagittal
    Cut down middle splitting right and left
  29. Transverse
    Cut seperating top from bottom
  30. Medial and lateral
    Center and on the sides
  31. Our chromosomes
    we have 46 diploid
  32. Sex cells
    • Sperm and egg cells
    • n- haploids
  33. Sex chromosomes
    • XX female
    • XY male
    • (1 pair)
  34. Autosomes
    all non sex chromosomes (22 pairs)
  35. Somatic cells
    • All of our diploid cells
    • (all the ones with autosomic chromosomes)
  36. Karyotyping
    • That sheet with all of the chromosomes
    • Know that the sex chromosomes were shorter
  37. Chromotids
    • Homologous: same size, shape, genes (daughters)
    • Sister chromotids make a butterfly, otherwise not sister